A boyar or bolyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal nobility in many Eastern European nations, including Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, Russia, Wallachia and Moldavia, and later Romania, Lithuania and among Baltic Germans. Boyars were second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars) from the 10th century to the 17th century. The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia where it is spelled Pajari or Bajārs/-e.
|Boyar / Szlachta (noble)|
|Smerd (free tenant)|