Brahman

Brahman (Sanskrit: ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.[1][2][3] In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.[2][4][5] It is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[1][3][6] Brahman as a metaphysical concept refers to the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.

(Om) signifies the essence of Brahman, the ultimate reality.
A drop in the ocean: an analogy for Ātman merging into Brahman.

Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".[7] Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.[8] The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle.[9] In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss)[10][11] and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.[12][13][note 1][note 2]

Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Sanskrit: आत्मन्), (Self),[8][16] personal,[note 3] impersonal[note 4] or Para Brahman,[note 5] or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.[17] In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (Self) in each being.[5][18][19] In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.[6][20][21]