Brazil–Hungary relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Federative Republic of Brazil and Hungary. Both nations enjoy friendly relations, the importance of which centres on the history of Hungarian immigration to Brazil. Approximately 100,000 Brazilians have Hungarian ancestry, making it the largest Hungarian community in Latin America. Both nations are members of the United Nations.
The first wave of Hungarian immigration to Brazil took place in the second half of the nineteenth century, due to the promise from Brazil to provide pieces of land for immigrants (as a way to encourage European immigration to the country) with many settling in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. In 1871, during a tour of Europe, Emperor Pedro II of Brazil visited Hungary (at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire). In 1873, Brazil opened an honorary consulate in Budapest.
In 1917 during World War I, Brazil declared war on the Central Powers (which included Hungary). The second big wave of Hungarian immigrants arrived to Brazil just after World War I, mainly from the territories Hungary lost as a consequence of the Treaty of Trianon. In 1923, Brazil recognized the independence of Hungary and in 1927, both nations established diplomatic relations. That same year, Hungary opened a diplomatic legation in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil opened one too in Budapest in 1929.
In 1942, Brazil declared war on the Axis powers (for which Hungary belonged to). As a result, diplomatic relations between Brazil and Hungary were severed. During the war (and soon afterwards), many Hungarians immigrated to Brazil, particularly Hungarians of Jewish origin. Relations between both nations were re-established in 1961 and in 1962, Brazil re-opened its diplomatic legation in Budapest. In 1974, both nations elevated their legations to embassies.
In 1994, Brazilian President-Elect, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, paid a visit to Hungary. In 1997, Hungarian President Árpád Göncz paid a visit to Brazil, becoming the first Hungarian head-of-state to visit the South American nation. In 2011, the Hungarian Government launched a strategic planning document that included Brazil among its foreign policy priorities. In 2013, Brazilian Vice-President Michel Temer paid a visit to Hungary. In 2017, both nations celebrated 90 years of diplomatic relations.
High-level visits from Brazil to Hungary
- Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1871)
- Vice-President Michel Temer (2013)
- Foreign Minister Ernesto Araújo (2019)
High-level visits from Hungary to Brazil
- Foreign Minister Géza Jeszenszky (1992)
- President Árpád Göncz (1997)
- Foreign Minister János Martonyi (2012)
- President János Áder (2012, 2016, 2018)
- Prime Minister Viktor Orbán (2016, 2019)
- Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó (2019)
Both nations have signed several bilateral agreements such as an Agreement to avoid double taxation (1986); Agreement on Scientific, Technical and Technological Cooperation (1992); Agreement on Economic Cooperation (2006); Memorandum of Understanding between Hungary's Eximbank and the Brazilian Development Bank (2012); and an Agreement of Cooperation between the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development and the Brazilian Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (2013).
In 2018, trade between both nations totaled US$480 million. Brazil's main exports to Hungary include: parts and turbine motores for airplanes; automobile parts; machinery; leather; and coffee. Hungary's main exports to Brazil include: machinery, vehicles and processed products. Brazil is Hungary's second largest trading partner in Latin America (after Mexico).
Resident diplomatic missions
- Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
- Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.