Brisbane (/ˈbrɪzbən/ (listen) BRIZ-bən[8]) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland,[9] and the third-most populous city in Australia and Oceania, with a population of approximately 2.6 million.[10] Brisbane lies at the centre of the South East Queensland metropolitan region, which encompasses a population of around 3.8 million.[11] The Brisbane central business district is situated within a peninsula of the Brisbane River about 15 km (9 mi) from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea.[12] Brisbane is located in the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges.[13] It sprawls across several local government areas, most centrally the City of Brisbane, Australia's most populous local government area. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite".[14][15]

Map of the Brisbane metropolitan area
Coordinates27°28′04″S 153°01′41″E
Population2,560,700 (2020)[1] (3rd)
 • Density159/km2 (410/sq mi) [2] (2021 GCCSA)
Established13 May 1825 (1825-05-13)
Area15,842 km2 (6,116.6 sq mi)[2] (2021 GCCSA)
Time zoneAEST (UTC+10:00)
RegionSouth East Queensland
CountyStanley, Canning, Cavendish, Churchill, Ward
State electorate(s)41 divisions
Federal division(s)17 divisions
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
25.4 °C
78 °F
15.7 °C
60 °F
1,036 mm
40.8 in

The Turrbal, a Durabalic tribe, were the earliest inhabitants of the area, and referred to it as Meeanjin.[9][dubious ] The Moreton Bay penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe as a place for secondary offenders from the Sydney colony, and soon moved to North Quay in 1825 on the banks of the Brisbane River, so named for Sir Thomas Brisbane. German Lutherans established the first free settlement of Zion Hill at Nundah in 1838, and in 1859 Brisbane was chosen as Queensland's capital when the state separated from New South Wales. By the late 19th century, the city had grown into a major port and centre of immigration. During World War II, the Allied command in the South West Pacific was based in the city, along with the headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army.[16]

Brisbane is classified as a global city,[17][18] and is a centre of research and innovation in the Asia-Pacific, with strengths in medicine and biotechnology.[19][20] A transport hub, Brisbane is served by large rail, bus and ferry networks, as well as Brisbane Airport and Australia's third-largest seaport.

A diverse city with over 32% of its metropolitan population being foreign-born,[21] Brisbane is consistently ranked among the world's most livable cities.[22] Galleries and museums are an important part of the city's culture, with the most prominent being the Queensland Art Gallery and Gallery of Modern Art. Brisbane has hosted major events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the 2014 G20 summit, and will host the 2032 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.[23]

Brisbane is a popular tourist destination. Major landmarks and attractions include South Bank Parklands, the City Botanic Gardens, King George Square and City Hall, the Story Bridge, the Mount Coot-tha Botanic Gardens and Lookout and the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary.

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