British African-Caribbean people

British African-Caribbean people are a cultural group in the United Kingdom. They are British citizens or residents of Caribbean descent, whose ancestry originates primarily from Africa, though some self-identified Afro-Caribbean people are multi-racial. The most common and traditional use of the term African-Caribbean community is in reference to groups of residents continuing aspects of Caribbean culture, customs and traditions in the UK.

British African-Caribbean people
Regions with significant populations
Greater London · West Midlands · Birmingham · Manchester · Huddersfield · Leeds · Liverpool · Cardiff · Bradford · Milton Keynes · Bristol · Northampton · Nottingham · Leicester · Luton · Sheffield · Reading · Slough · Gloucester · Glasgow
British English · Caribbean English
Predominantly Christianity
Muslim and Rastafarian minority
Related ethnic groups
African diaspora · African-Caribbean · Bahamian British · British Jamaicans · Guyanese British · Barbadian British · Grenadian British · Montserratian British · Trinidadian and Tobagonian British · Antiguan British

The earliest generations of Afro-Caribbean people to migrate to Britain traced their ancestry to a wide range of ethnic groups; from disparate African peoples taken from West Africa as slaves to the colonial Caribbean,[1] in addition to smaller amounts of ancestry from various indigenous Caribbean tribes, and from settlers of European and Asian ethnic groups.[2]

Arriving in small numbers to reside in port cities in England and Wales since the mid-18th century, the most significant wave of migration came after World War II, coinciding with the decolonisation era and the dissolution of the British Empire. Known as the Windrush generation, they had arrived as citizens of United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs) in the 1950s and 1960s owing to birth in the former British colonies of the Caribbean. Although those who settled in the UK prior to 1973 were granted either right of abode or indefinite leave to remain by the Immigration Act 1971, a series of governmental policies had caused some to be erroneously labelled as unlawfully residing in the UK in the 2000s and 2010s, which subsequently became known as the Windrush scandal.[3] The population has a diverse background, with origins in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Anguilla, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana, and Belize.

In the 21st century, African-Caribbean communities are present throughout the United Kingdom's major cities, and the surviving members of this generation, sometimes called the Windrush Britons, and their descendents, constitute the multi-ethnic cultural group residing in the country. As there isn't a specific UK census category which comprehensively covers the community, population numbers remain somewhat ambiguous. 'Black Caribbean' (under a 'Black British' heading), and 'Mixed: White and Black Caribbean' (under a 'Mixed' heading) denote full or partial descent, and recorded 594,825 and 426,715 persons, respectively, at the 2011 United Kingdom census. 'White: White Caribbean', 'Mixed: Caribbean Asian' and 'Mixed: White Caribbean' are census categories which were also utilised.[4][5] In this regard, and illustrating complexities within African Caribbean peoplehood, there are notable examples of those with a parent or grandparent of African-Caribbean ancestry identifying with, or being perceived as, white people in the United Kingdom.[6][7][8][9][10]

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