British Chinese

British Chinese (also known as Chinese British or Chinese Britons) are people of Chinese  particularly Han Chinese  ancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second-largest group of overseas Chinese in Western Europe after France.[1] The British Chinese community is thought to be the oldest Chinese community in Western Europe. The first waves of immigrants came between 1842 (the end of the First Opium War) and the 1940s (the end of World War II), largely through treaty ports opened as concessions to the British for the Opium Wars, such as Canton, Tianjin and Shanghai. Chinese immigrants tended to settle in British port cities such as Liverpool, London, and Cardiff.[2]

British Chinese
英國華裔/英国华裔
Total population
United Kingdom approx. 433,150 (2011)
England 379,502 – 0.7% (2011)
Scotland 33,706 – 0.6% (2011)
Wales 13,638 – 0.4% (2011)
Northern Ireland 6,303 – 0.3% (2011)
0.7% of the UK's population (2011)
Regions with significant populations
Greater London, Belfast, Greater Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Glasgow, Cardiff, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, Edinburgh, Yorkshire and The Humber, South East England, Norwich
Languages
English, Mandarin, Cantonese, Min, Hakka, Baba Malay, Malay
Religion
Irreligion, Atheism, Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Christian Orthodoxy, Judaism, Islam

Some of the early British Chinese were also Eurasians. An estimated 900 Chinese-Eurasian born as result of marriages from Chinese fathers and White mothers of various ethnic backgrounds; the most common being British and Irish. Most British-Chinese of Eurasian origin were concentrated in around the Liverpool area of Chinatown, where there was a growing Chinese-Eurasian community. Many of them had assimilated with other ethnic Chinese, while others assimilated with mainstream British population.[3][4][5]

Most British Chinese are descended from people of former British colonies, such as: Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Mauritius. Others come from new waves of Chinese migrants, since the 1980s, especially from mainland China. Chinese communities are found in many major cities including: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Sheffield, Nottingham, Belfast, and Aberdeen.

Compared with most ethnic minorities in the UK, the Chinese are socioeconomically more widespread and decentralised, have a record of high academic achievement, and have the second highest household income among demographic groups in the UK, after British Indians.[6]