British Raj

The British Raj (/rɑː/; from Hindi rāj (state, government); in turn from Sanskrit rājya (kingship, realm, state)) [2] was the rule of the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.[3][4][5][6] The rule is also called Crown rule in India,[7] or direct rule in India.[8] The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British subsidiary alliance or paramountcy, called the princely states. The region was sometimes called the Indian Empire, though not officially.[9]

India
1858–1947
1909 map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and the princely states in yellow.
StatusImperial political structure (comprising British India, a quasi-federation of presidencies and provinces directly governed by the British Crown through the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Princely States, governed by Indian rulers, under the suzerainty of The British Crown exercised through the Viceroy of India)[1]
CapitalCalcutta
(1858–1911)
New Delhi
(1911–1947)
Simla (summer capital)
(1864–1947)
Common languages
Religion
Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism
GovernmentBritish Colonial Government
King-Emperor/Queen-Empress 
 1858–1901
Victoria
 1901–1910
Edward VII
 1910–1936
George V
 1936
Edward VIII
 1936–1947
George VI
Viceroy 
 1858–1862 (first)
Charles Canning
 1947 (last)
Louis Mountbatten
Secretary of State 
 1858–1859 (first)
Edward Stanley
 1947 (last)
William Hare
LegislatureImperial Legislative Council
History 
23 June 1757 and 10 May 1857
2 August 1858
18 July 1947
14 and 15 August 1947
CurrencyIndian rupee
Preceded by
Succeeded by
1763:
Persian Gulf Residency
1809:
Cis-Sutlej states
1839:
Aden Settlement
1857:
Mughal Empire
1858:
Company rule in India
1893:
Emirate of Afghanistan
1937:
Colony of Aden
1937:
Colony of Burma
1947:
Dominion of India
1947:
Dominion of Pakistan
1947:
Trucial States
1947:
Bahrain
1947:
Muscat and Oman
1947:
Sheikhdom of Kuwait
1947:
Qatar

    As "India", it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[10]

    This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria[11] (who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when the British Raj was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern part of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1971). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma (Myanmar), was administered as an autonomous province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony, gaining its own independence in 1948.