The Bronx

The Bronx (/brɒŋks/) is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; north and east of the New York City borough of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of the New York City borough of Queens, across the East River. The Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,472,654 in the 2020 census.[1] If each borough were ranked as a city, the Bronx would rank as the ninth-most-populous in the U.S. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density.[4] It is the only borough of New York City not primarily on an island.

The Bronx
Bronx County, New York
Yankee Stadium (center), Bronx County Courthouse and the Grand Concourse towards the top. To the right of the current stadium is the site of its predecessor.
Motto(s): 
Ne cede malis – "Yield Not to Evil"
(lit. "Yield Not to Evil Things")
Map outlining the Bronx
Location within the state of New York
Coordinates: 40°50′14″N 73°53′10″W
Country United States
State New York
CountyBronx (coterminous)
CityNew York City
Borough created1898 (County in 1914)
Named forJonas Bronck
Government
  TypeBorough of New York City
  Borough PresidentRubén Díaz Jr. (D)
(Borough of the Bronx)
  District AttorneyDarcel Clark (D)
(Bronx County)
Area
  Total57 sq mi (150 km2)
  Land42 sq mi (110 km2)
  Water15 sq mi (40 km2)  27%
Highest elevation
280 ft (90 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total1,472,654[1]
  Density34,920.3/sq mi (13,482.8/km2)
  Demonym
Bronxite[2]
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Code prefix
104
Area codes718/347/929, 917
GDP (2018)US$42.7 billion[3]
Websitebronxboropres.nyc.gov

The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, and a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue. The West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895.[5] Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914.[6] About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space,[7] including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center. The Thain Family Forest at the New York Botanical Garden is thousands of years old; it is New York City's largest remaining tract of the original forest that once covered the area of the city.[8] These open spaces are situated primarily on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan.

The word "Bronx" originated with Faroese-born (or Swedish-born) Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639.[9][10][11] The native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by European settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries (particularly Ireland, Germany, Italy and Eastern Europe) and later from the Caribbean region (particularly Puerto Rico, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic), as well as African American migrants from the southern United States.[12] This cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of Latin music, hip hop and rap.

The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th. There are, however, some upper-income, as well as middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Fieldston, Spuyten Duyvil, Schuylerville, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, and Country Club.[13][14][15] Parts of the Bronx saw a decline in population, livable housing, and quality of life in the late 1960s, throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and into the early 1990s, culminating in a wave of arson in the late 1970s. The South Bronx, in particular, experienced severe urban decay. The borough experienced some redevelopment starting in the late 1990s, with concomitant gentrification following.[16]