Burundian Civil War

The Burundian Civil War was a civil war in Burundi lasting from 1993 to 2005. The civil war was the result of longstanding ethnic divisions between the Hutu and the Tutsi ethnic groups. The conflict began following the first multi-party elections in the country since its independence from Belgium in 1962, and is seen as formally ending with the swearing-in of President Pierre Nkurunziza in August 2005. Children were widely used by both sides in the war.[8] The estimated death toll stands at 300,000.[7]

Burundian Civil War
Part of the spillover of the Rwandan genocide and Second Congo War

People fleeing during 1993 Burundian genocide that marked the civil war's start
Date21 October 1993 – 15 May 2005
(11 years, 6 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)

Arusha Accords (2000)

  • Peace agreement and political reforms in 2005
  • Swearing in of Pierre Nkurunziza
  • Ongoing sporadic violence, with notable incidents in 2006 and 2008
  • Unresolved issues of the civil war contribute to new unrest from 2015


Supported by:
RPF (Rwanda)

International peacekeepers:
AMIB (2003–04)
ONUB (from 2004)

Ethnic Hutu rebels:

Hutu militias and youth gangs:

  • Inziraguhemuka
  • Intagoheka
  • "Chicago Bulls"
Supported by:
 Zaire (until 1996)
DR Congo (2000s)[4]
  • Tutsi militants:
  • Burundian military factions
  • Sans Echec
  • Sans Défaite
  • Sans Pitié
  • Sans Capote
  • Imbogaraburundi
  • PA-Amasekanya
Supported by:
RPF (Rwanda)
Commanders and leaders
Sylvie Kinigi
Cyprien Ntaryamira 
Sylvestre Ntibantunganya
Pierre Buyoya
Domitien Ndayizeye
Jean Bikomagu
Leonard Nyangoma
Jean-Bosco Ndayikengurukiye
Pierre Nkurunziza
Évariste Ndayishimiye
Kabora Kossan
Agathon Rwasa
Alain Mugabarabona
Joseph Karumba[5]
Committee of Public Salvation (1993)
Diomède Rutamucero (PA-Amasekanya)

Gov. forces:

  • 6,000 (1993)
  • 40,000 (2000)

ONUB: 6,095[6]
c. 11,000 (CNDD-FDD)[2]
2,000–3,000 (PALIPEHUTU-FNL)[2]
Casualties and losses
c. 300,000 killed in total[7]

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