Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Belarusian: Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка, romanized: Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Russian: Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика, romanized: Byelorusskaya Sovyetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika or Russian: Белорусская ССР, romanized: Belorusskaya SSR), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR). It existed between 1920 and 1922, and from 1922 to 1991 as one of fifteen constituent republics of the USSR, with its own legislation from 1990 to 1991. The republic was ruled by the Communist Party of Byelorussia and was also referred to as Soviet Byelorussia by a number of historians.[4]

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка (Belarusian)
Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
1941–1944: German occupation
Motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! (Belarusian)
Praletaryi ŭsikh krain, yadnaytsesya! (transliteration)
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Anthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Беларускай Савецкай Сацыялiстычнай Рэспублiкi
Dziaržaŭny himn Bielaruskaj Savieckaj Sacyjalistyčnaj Respubliki
"Anthem of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic"
Location of Byelorussia (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1945 and 1991
StatusSoviet Socialist Republic (1922–1990)
and largest city
Official languages
Recognised languages
State atheism
Demonym(s)Byelorussian, Soviet
First Secretary 
 1920–1923 (first)
Vilgelm Knorinsh
 1987–1990 (last)[2]
Yefrem Sokolov
Head of state 
 1920–1937 (first)
Alexander Chervyakov
 1991 (last)
Stanislav Shushkevich
Head of government 
 1920–1924 (first)
Alexander Chervyakov
 1990–1991 (last)
Vyacheslav Kebich
LegislatureCongress of Soviets (1920–1938)
Supreme Soviet (1938–1991)
 First Soviet republic declared
1 January 1919
 Second Soviet republic proclaimed
31 July 1920
30 December 1922
15 November 1939
24 October 1945
 Sovereignty declared, partial cancellation of the Soviet form of government
27 July 1990
 Independence declared[citation needed]
25 August 1991
 Renamed Republic of Belarus
19 September 1991
 Internationally recognized (Dissolution of the Soviet Union)
26 December 1991
15 March 1994
207,600 km2 (80,200 sq mi)
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Calling code7 015/016/017/02
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Second Polish Republic
Reichskommissariat Ostland
Bezirk Bialystok
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Today part ofBelarus

To the west it bordered Poland. Within the Soviet Union, it bordered the Lithuanian SSR and the Latvian SSR to the north, the Russian SFSR to the east, and the Ukrainian SSR to the south.

The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia (SSRB) was declared by the Bolsheviks on 1 January 1919 following the declaration of independence by the Belarusian Democratic Republic in March 1918. In 1922, the BSSR was one of the four founding members of the Soviet Union, together with the Ukrainian SSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). Byelorussia was one of several Soviet republics occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.

Towards the final years of the Soviet Union's existence, the Supreme Soviet of Byelorussian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty on 27 July 1990. On 25 August 1991, the Byelorussian SSR declared independence, and on 19 September it was renamed the Republic of Belarus. The Soviet Union was dissolved four months and one day later on 26 December 1991.