C++ (/ˌsˌplʌsˈplʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or "C with Classes". The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ now has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It is almost always implemented as a compiled language, and many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel, Oracle, and IBM, so it is available on many platforms.[9]

Logo endorsed by Standard C++
ParadigmsMulti-paradigm: procedural, functional, object-oriented, generic, modular
Designed byBjarne Stroustrup
DeveloperISO/IEC JTC1 (Joint Technical Committee 1) / SC22 (Subcommittee 22) / WG21 (Working Group 21)
First appeared1985; 36 years ago (1985)
Stable release
C++20 (ISO/IEC 14882:2020) / 15 December 2020; 11 months ago (2020-12-15)
Preview release
C++23 / 23 October 2021; 41 days ago (2021-10-23)
Typing disciplineStatic, nominative, partially inferred
Filename extensions.C, .cc, .cpp, .cxx, .c++, .h, .H, .hh, .hpp, .hxx, .h++
Major implementations
GCC, LLVM Clang, Microsoft Visual C++, Embarcadero C++Builder, Intel C++ Compiler, IBM XL C++, EDG
Influenced by
Ada,[1] ALGOL 68, C, CLU,[1] ML, Mesa,[1] Modula-2,[1] Simula, Smalltalk[1]
Ada 95, C#,[2] C99, Chapel,[3] Clojure,[4] D, Java,[5] JS++,[6] Lua, Nim,[7] Objective-C++, Perl, PHP, Python,[8] Rust, Seed7

C++ was designed with an orientation toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance, efficiency, and flexibility of use as its design highlights.[10] C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications,[10] including desktop applications, video games, servers (e.g. e-commerce, web search, or databases), and performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes).[11]

C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2020 as ISO/IEC 14882:2020 (informally known as C++20).[12] The C++ programming language was initially standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which was then amended by the C++03, C++11, C++14, and C++17 standards. The current C++20 standard supersedes these with new features and an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language; he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C that also provided high-level features for program organization.[13] Since 2012, C++ has been on a three-year release schedule[14] with C++23 as the next planned standard.[15]

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