Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of signatures, sheets of paper folded together, which are bound along one edge with a thick needle and strong thread. Less permanent methods for binding books include loose-leaf rings, binding posts, and twin-loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, and plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack of signatures is enclosed in a flexible cover or a cover of stiffened boards. Finally, an attractive cover is placed onto the boards, and features the publisher's information and artistic decorations.

A traditional bookbinder at work
Bookbinder's type holder

The trade of binding books is in two parts: (i) stationery binding (vellum) for books intended for handwritten entries, such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank-page books, and guest logbooks, and notebooks, manifold books, day books, diaries, and portfolios. (ii) letterpress printing and binding deals with making books intended for reading, which comprises the library binding and the fine binding, edition binding and publisher's bindings.[1]

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