Canada

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest binational land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Canada
Motto: A mari usque ad mare (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"
CapitalOttawa
45°24′N 75°40′W
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
See below
Religion
See below
Demonym(s)Canadian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
 Monarch
Charles III
Mary Simon
Justin Trudeau
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence 
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
Area
 Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
 Water (%)
11.76 (as of 2015)[2]
 Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
Population
 Q3 2022 estimate
38,929,902[3] (37th)
 2021 census
36,991,981[4]
 Density
4.2/km2 (10.9/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$2.240 trillion[5] (15th)
 Per capita
$57,827[5] (25th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$2.200 trillion[5] (8th)
 Per capita
$56,794[5] (11th)
Gini (2018) 30.3[6]
medium
HDI (2021) 0.936[7]
very high · 15th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
 Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[8]
Driving sideright
Calling code+1
Internet TLD.ca

Indigenous peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister, who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons, and is appointed by the governor general, representing the monarch of Canada, the head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual (English and French) at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education, gender equality and environmental sustainability. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

A highly developed country, Canada has the 24th highest nominal per capita income globally and the sixteenth-highest ranking on the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the eighth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the Organization of American States.


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