Law of Canada

The legal system of Canada is pluralist: its foundations lie in the English common law system (inherited from its period as a colony of the British Empire), the French civil law system (inherited from its French Empire past)[1][2] and Indigenous law systems developed by the various Indigenous peoples.

The Constitution of Canada provide the framework within which the systems interact and operate. Canadian constitutional law outlines Canada's system of government and the civil and human rights of those who are citizens of Canada and non-citizens in Canada.[3]

Canada recognizes only two orders of government with sovereignty, arising from heritage, common law and the constitution: federal and provincial. All other forms of government, including municipal governments, must receive their powers through delegation, making municipal, local and regional governments creatures of sovereign governments. Territories receive their powers via delegation from the Federal Government. The federal government has jurisdiction over certain domains which are regulated exclusively by Parliament, as well as all matters and disputes between provinces. These generally include inter-provincial transport (rail, air and marine transport) as well as inter-provincial trade and commerce (which generally concerns energy, the environment, agriculture). The criminal law is an area of exclusive federal jurisdiction and has its origins in the English common law. Prosecutions of most criminal offences are conducted by the provincial Attorneys General, acting under the Criminal Code.