3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E290 (preservatives)|
|UN number||1013 (gas), 1845 (solid)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||44.009 g·mol−1|
|Critical point (T, P)||304.128(15) K (30.978(15) °C), 7.3773(30) MPa (72.808(30) atm)|
|194.6855(30) K (−78.4645(30) °C) at 1 atm (0.101325 MPa)|
|1.45 g/L at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa (0.99 atm)|
|Vapor pressure||5.7292(30) MPa, 56.54(30) atm (20 °C (293.15 K))|
|Acidity (pKa)||6.35, 10.33|
|Thermal conductivity||0.01662 W·m−1·K−1 (300 K (27 °C; 80 °F))|
Refractive index (nD)
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LCLo (lowest published)
|90,000 ppm (human, 5 min)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3)|
|TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), ST 30,000 ppm (54,000 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO
2) is an acidic colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules consist of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (412 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Carbon dioxide has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth. However, at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.
As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth.
It is returned to water via the gills of fish and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. It is produced by combustion of wood, peat and other organic materials and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year).
It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is added to drinking water and carbonated beverages including beer and sparkling wine to add effervescence. The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals.
Carbon dioxide is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. Carbon dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.