Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was a military coup on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime,[1] producing fundamental social, economic, territorial, demographic and political changes through the Processo Revolucionário Em Curso, resulting in the Portuguese transition to democracy, and the end of the Portuguese Colonial War.

Carnation Revolution
Part of the Portuguese transition to democracy and the Cold War
"25th of April always!" 1978
Date25 April 1974; 47 years ago (1974-04-25)
Caused by
MethodsCoup d'état
Resulted inAF Movement victory
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Casualties and losses
4 killed

The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign.

Negotiations with African independence movements began, and by the end of 1974, Portuguese troops were withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea, which became a UN member state. This was followed by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in 1975, and Portugal's withdrawal from East Timor in south-east Asia.

These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million Portuguese refugees – the retornados.[2][3]

The carnation revolution got its name from the fact that almost no shots were fired, and from Celeste Caeiro offering carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship, with other demonstrators following suit, and carnations placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[4]

In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) which commemorates the revolution.