Carthage (Latin: Carthago) was an ancient city in modern Tunisia.
|Criteria||ii, iii, vi|
|Designated||1979 (3rd session)|
The city developed from a Phoenician colony into one of the most affluent cities of the classical world and capital of the Carthaginian (or Punic) empire which dominated parts of the southwest Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.
The ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War after the Battle of Carthage (c. 149 BC) and later rebuilt as Roman Carthage, which became capital of the Roman province of Africa.
The city was sacked and destroyed by Umayyad forces after the Battle of Carthage in 698 to prevent it from being reconquered by the Byzantine Empire. It remained occupied during the Muslim period as a fort until the Hafsid period when it was taken by the Crusaders with its inhabitants massacred during the Eighth Crusade. The Hafsids decided to destroy its defenses so it could not be used as a base by a hostile power again. It continued to function as an episcopal see.
The regional power had shifted to Kairouan and the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919.