Casablanca (Arabic: الدار البيضاء, romanized: ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; Berber languages: ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, romanized: anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located on the Atlantic coast of the Chaouia plain in the central-western part of Morocco, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb region and the eighth-largest in the Arab world. Casablanca is Morocco's chief port and one of the largest financial centers in Africa. According to the 2019 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.71 million in the urban area and over 4.27 million in the Greater Casablanca. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat.
Top: View of Hassan II Mosque, Second: Casablanca Twin Center, Al Mohamedia Mosque, (left to right) Bottom: Night view of downtown Boulevard Zerktouni area
|First settled||7th century BC|
|• Mayor||Abdelaziz El Omari|
|• City||220 km2 (80 sq mi)|
|• Metro||20,166 km2 (7,786 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0 to 150 m (0 to 492 ft)|
|• Rank||1st in Morocco|
|Demonyms||Casawi, Bidawi, Baydawi|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
The leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca holds its recorded position as the primary industrial zone of the nation. The Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, and the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km (25 mi) east of Tangier. Casablanca also hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy.
Before 15th century, the settlement at what is now Casablanca had been called Anfa, rendered in European sources variously as El-Anfa, Anafa or Anaffa, Anafe, Anife, Anafee, Nafe, and Nafee. Ibn Khaldun ascribed the name to the Anfaça, a branch of the Auréba tribe of the Maghreb, though the sociologist André Adam refuted this claim due to the absence of the third syllable. Nahum Slouschz gave a Hebrew etymology, citing the Lexicon of Gesenius: anâphâh (a type of bird) or anaph (face, figure), though Adam refuted this arguing that even a Judaized population would still have spoken Tamazight. Adam also refuted an Arabic etymology, أنف (anf, "nose"), as the city predated the linguistic Arabization of the country, and the term anf was not used to describe geographic areas. Adam affirmed a Tamazight etymology—from anfa "hill," anfa "promontory on the sea," ifni "sandy beach," or anfa "threshing floor"—although he determined the available information insufficient to establish exactly which. The name Anfa is now rendered in Neo-Tifinagh as ⴰⵏⴼⴰ.
When Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah (c. 1710 – 1790) rebuilt the city after its destruction in the earthquake of 1755, it was renamed "ad-Dār al-Bayda' " (الدار البيضاء The White House), though in vernacular use it was pronounced "Dar al-Baiḍā" (دار البيضاء House of the White).
André Adam mentions the legend of the Sufi saint and merchant Allal al-Qairawani, who supposedly came from Tunisia and settled in Casablanca with his wife Lalla al-Baiḍā' (لالة البيضاء White Lady). The villagers of Mediouna would reportedly provision themselves at "Dar al-Baiḍā" (دار البيضاء House of the White).
In fact, rising above the ruins of Anfa, it appears there was a tall white-washed structure, as the Portuguese cartographer Duarte Pacheco wrote in the early 16th century that the city could easily be identified by a large tower, and nautical guides from the late 19th century still mentioned a "white tower" as a point of reference. The Portuguese mariners came to call the city "Casa Branca" ([kazɐ'bɾɐ̃kɐ] White House) in place of Anfa. The present name, "Casablanca," which is the Spanish version (pronounced [ka̠sa̠ˈβ̞la̠ŋka̠]), came when the Kingdom of Portugal came under Spanish control through the Iberian Union. Adam argues that it is unlikely that the Arabic name "Dar al-Baiḍā" (دار البيضاء) is a translation of the European names; the presence of the two names indicates that they came about together, not one from the other.
During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca (pronounced [kazablɑ̃ka]). The city is still nicknamed Casa by many locals and outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dār al-Bayḍā, instead.
The area which is today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC. It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and later the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD. He believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, and continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port. The last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465.
Portuguese conquest and Spanish influence
In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, and emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468. The Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515. The town that grew up around it was called Casa Branca, meaning "white house" in Portuguese.
Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration. As Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under fully Portuguese control once again. The Europeans eventually abandoned the area completely in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town.
The town was finally reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah (1756–1790), the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ (الدار البيضاء), the Arabic translation of the Portuguese Casa Branca.
In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased (the British, in return, began importing gunpowder tea, used in Morocco's national drink, mint tea). By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, and the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s. Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000, largely through the development of shanty towns.
French rule and influence
The Treaty of Algeciras of 1906 formalized French preeminence in Morocco and included three measures that directly impacted Casablanca: that French officers would control operations at the customs office and seize revenue as collateral for loans given by France, that the French holding company La Compagnie Marocaine would develop the port of Casablanca, and that a French-and-Spanish-trained police force would be assembled to patrol the port.
To build the port's breakwater, narrow-gauge track was laid in June 1907 for a small Decauville locomotive to connect the port to a quarry in Roches Noires, passing through the sacred Sidi Belyout graveyard. In resistance to this and the measures of the 1906 Treaty of Algeciras, tribesmen of the Chaouia attacked the locomotive, killing 9 Compagnie Marocaine laborers—3 French, 3 Italians, and 3 Spanish.
In response, the French bombarded the city with multiple gunboats and landed troops inside the town, causing severe damage and 15,000 dead and wounded. In the immediate aftermath of the bombardment and the deployment of French troops, the European homes and the Mellah, or Jewish quarter, were sacked, and the latter was also set ablaze.
- A man inspects the derailed Decauville locomotive at the scene of the attack that served as the pretext for the French bombardment of Casablanca in 1907.
- Casablanca street ravaged by artillery shells.
- Moroccan cadavers in a mass grave.
As Oujda had already been occupied, the bombardment and military invasion of the city opened a western front to the French military conquest of Morocco. French control of Casablanca was formalized March 1912 when the Treaty of Fes established the French Protectorat.
General Hubert Lyautey assigned the planning of the new colonial port city to Henri Prost. As he did in other Moroccan cities, Prost designed a European ville nouvelle outside the walls of the medina. In Casablanca, he also designed a new "ville indigène" to house Moroccans arriving from other cities.
World War II
After Philippe Pétain of France signed the armistice with the Nazis, he ordered French troops in France's colonial empire to defend French territory against any aggressors—Allied or otherwise—applying a policy of "asymmetrical neutrality" in favor of the Germans. French colonists in Morocco generally supported Pétain, while politically conscious Moroccans tended to favor de Gaulle and the Allies.
Operation Torch, which started on 8 November 1942, was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African campaign of World War II. The Western Task Force, composed of American units led by Major General George S. Patton and Rear Admiral Henry Kent Hewitt, carried out the invasions of Mehdia, Fedhala, and Asfi. American forces captured Casablanca from Vichy control when France surrendered November 11, 1942, but the Naval Battle of Casablanca continued until American forces sank German submarine U-173 on November 16.
Casablanca was the site of the Nouasseur Air Base, a large American air base used as the staging area for all American aircraft for the European Theater of Operations during World War II. The air field has since become Mohammed V International Airport.
Casablanca hosted the Anfa Conference (also called the Casablanca Conference) in January 1943. Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt discussed the progress of the war. Also in attendance were the Free France generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, though they played minor roles and didn't participate in the military planning.
It was at this conference that the Allies adopted the doctrine of "unconditional surrender," meaning that the Axis powers would be fought until their defeat. Roosevelt also met privately with Sultan Muhammad V and expressed his support for Moroccan independence after the war. This became a turning point, as Moroccan nationalists were emboldened to openly seek complete independence.
During the 1940s and 1950s, Casablanca was a major centre of anti-French rioting.
April 7, 1947, a massacre of working class Moroccans, carried out by Senegalese Tirailleurs in the service of the French colonial army, was instigated just as Sultan Muhammed V was due to make a speech in Tangier appealing for independence.
Riots in Casablanca took place from December 7–8, 1952, in response to the assassination of the Tunisian labor unionist Farhat Hached by La Main Rouge—the clandestine militant wing of French intelligence. Then, on 25 December 1953 (Christmas Day), Muhammad Zarqtuni orchestrated a bombing of Casablanca's Central Market in response to the forced exile of Sultan Muhammad V and the royal family on August 20 (Eid al-Adha) of that year.
January 4–7, 1961, the city hosted an ensemble of progressive African leaders during the Casablanca Conference of 1961. Among those received by King Muhammad V were Gamal Abd An-Nasser, Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Keïta, and Ahmed Sékou Touré, Ferhat Abbas.
Casablanca was a major departure point for Jews leaving Morocco through Operation Yachin, an operation conducted by Mossad to secretly migrate Moroccan Jews to Israel between November 1961 and spring 1964.
The 1965 student protests organized by the National Union of Popular Forces-affiliated National Union of Moroccan Students, which spread to cities around the country and devolved into riots, started on March 22, 1965, in front of Lycée Mohammed V in Casablanca. The protests started as a peaceful march to demand the right to public higher education for Morocco, but expanded to include concerns of laborers, the unemployed, and other marginalized segments of society, and devolved into vandalism and rioting. The riots were violently repressed by security forces with tanks and armored vehicles; Moroccan authorities reported a dozen deaths while the UNFP reported more than 1,000.
King Hassan II blamed the events on teachers and parents, and declared in a speech to the nation on March 30, 1965: "There is no greater danger to the State than a so-called intellectual. It would have been better if you were all illiterate.”
On June 6, 1981, the Casablanca Bread Riots took place. Hassan II appointed the French-trained interior minister Driss Basri as hardliner, who would later become a symbol of the Years of Lead, with quelling the protests. The government stated that 66 people were killed and 100 were injured, while opposition leaders put the number of dead at 637, saying that many of these were killed by police and army gunfire.
In March 2000, more than 60 women's groups organized demonstrations in Casablanca proposing reforms to the legal status of women in the country. About 40,000 women attended, calling for a ban on polygamy and the introduction of divorce law (divorce being a purely religious procedure at that time). Although the counter-demonstration attracted half a million participants, the movement for change started in 2000 was influential on King Mohammed VI, and he enacted a new mudawana, or family law, in early 2004, meeting some of the demands of women's rights activists.
On 16 May 2003, 33 civilians were killed and more than 100 people were injured when Casablanca was hit by a multiple suicide bomb attack carried out by Moroccans and claimed by some to have been linked to al-Qaeda. Twelve suicide bombers struck five locations in the city.
Another series of suicide bombings struck the city in early 2007. These events illustrated some of the persistent challenges the city faces in addressing poverty and integrating disadvantaged neighborhoods and populations. One initiative to improve conditions in the city's disadvantaged neighborhoods was the creation of the Sidi Moumen Cultural Center.
As calls for reform spread through the Arab world in 2011, Moroccans joined in, but concessions by the ruler led to acceptance. However, in December, thousands of people demonstrated in several parts of the city, especially the city center near la Fontaine, desiring more significant political reforms.
Casablanca is located on the Atlantic coast of the Chaouia Plains, which have historically been the breadbasket of Morocco. Apart from the Atlantic coast, the Bouskoura forest is the only natural attraction in the city. The forest was planted in the 20th century and consists mostly of eucalyptus, palm, and pine trees. It is located halfway to the city's international airport.
The only watercourse in Casablanca is oued Bouskoura, a small seasonal creek that until 1912 reached the Atlantic Ocean near the actual port. Most of oued Bouskoura's bed has been covered due to urbanization and only the part south of El Jadida road can now be seen. The closest permanent river to Casablanca is Oum Rabia, 70 km (43.50 mi) to the south-east.
Casablanca has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). The cool Canary Current off the Atlantic coast moderates temperature variation, which results in a climate remarkably similar to that of coastal Los Angeles, with similar temperature ranges. The city has an annual average of 72 days with significant precipitation, which amounts to 412 mm (16.2 in) per year. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) and −2.7 °C (27.1 °F), respectively. The highest amount of rainfall recorded in a single day is 178 mm (7.0 in) on 30 November 2010.
|Climate data for Casablanca (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.1
|Average high °C (°F)||17.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.6
|Average low °C (°F)||9.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||68
|Average rainy days||9||9||7||8||6||2||1||1||3||7||9||11||72|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||83||82||80||79||81||82||83||83||82||82||84||82|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||189.6||188.5||240.7||261.5||293.6||285.0||303.4||294.1||258.1||234.3||190.6||183.1||2,922.5|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)|
The Grand Casablanca region is considered the locomotive of the development of the Moroccan economy. It attracts 32% of the country's production units and 56% of industrial labor. The region uses 30% of the national electricity production. With MAD 93 billion, the region contributes to 44% of the industrial production of the kingdom. About 33% of national industrial exports, MAD 27 billion, comes from the Grand Casablanca; 30% of the Moroccan banking network is concentrated in Casablanca.
One of the most important Casablancan exports is phosphate. Other industries include fishing, fish canning, sawmills, furniture production, building materials, glass, textiles, electronics, leather work, processed food, spirits, soft drinks, and cigarettes.
The Casablanca and Mohammedia seaports activity represent 50% of the international commercial flows of Morocco. Almost the entire Casablanca waterfront is under development, mainly the construction of huge entertainment centres between the port and Hassan II Mosque, the Anfa Resort project near the business, entertainment and living centre of Megarama, the shopping and entertainment complex of Morocco Mall, as well as a complete renovation of the coastal walkway. The Sindbad park is planned to be totally renewed with rides, games and entertainment services.
Royal Air Maroc has its head office at the Casablanca-Anfa Airport. In 2004, it announced that it was moving its head office from Casablanca to a location in Province of Nouaceur, close to Mohammed V International Airport. The agreement to build the head office in Nouaceur was signed in 2009.
Casablanca is a commune, part of the region of Casablanca-Settat. The commune is divided into eight districts or prefectures, which are themselves divided into 16 subdivisions or arrondissements and one municipality. The districts and their subdivisions are:
- Aïn Chock (عين الشق) – Aïn Chock (عين الشق)
- Aïn Sebaâ - Hay Mohammadi (عين السبع الحي المحمدي) – Aïn Sebaâ (عين السبع), Hay Mohammadi (الحي المحمدي), Roches Noires (روش نوار).
- Anfa (أنفا) – Anfa (أنفا), Maârif (المعاريف), Sidi Belyout (سيدي بليوط).
- Ben M'Sick (بن مسيك) – Ben M'Sick (بن مسيك), Sbata (سباته).
- Sidi Bernoussi (سيدي برنوصي) – Sidi Bernoussi (سيدي برنوصي), Sidi Moumen (سيدي مومن).
- Al Fida - Mers Sultan (الفداء – مرس السلطان) – Al Fida (الفداء); Mechouar (المشور) (municipality), Mers Sultan (مرس السلطان).
- Hay Hassani (الحي الحسني) – Hay Hassani (الحي الحسني).
- Moulay Rachid (مولاي رشيد) – Moulay Rachid (مولاي رشيد), Sidi Othmane (سيدي عثمان).
The list of neighborhoods is indicative and not complete:
- 2 Mars
- Ain Chock
- Ain Diab
- Ain Sebaa
- Centre Ville
- La Colline
- Derb Ghallef
- Derb Sultan
- Derb Tazi
- El Hank
- Hay Dakhla
- Hay El Baraka
- Hay El Hanaa
- Hay El Hassani
- Hay El Mohammadi
- Hay Farah
- Hay Moulay Rachid
- Hay Salama
- Laimoun (Hay Hassani)
- Mers Sultan
- Old Madina
- Roches Noires
- Salmia 2
- Sidi Bernoussi
- Sidi Maârouf
- Sidi Moumen
- Sidi Othmane
The commune of Casablanca recorded a population of 3,359,818 in the 2014 Moroccan census. About 98% live in urban areas. Around 25% of them are under 15 and 9% are over 60 years old. The population of the city is about 11% of the total population of Morocco. Grand Casablanca is also the largest urban area in the Maghreb. 99.9% of the population of Morocco are Arab and Berber Muslims. During the French protectorate in Morocco, European Christians formed almost half the population of Casablanca. Since independence in 1956, the European population has decreased substantially. The city also is still home to a small community of Moroccan Christians, as well as a small group of foreign Roman Catholic and Protestant residents.
Judaism in Casablanca
Jews have a long history in Casablanca. A Sephardic Jewish community was in Anfa up to the destruction of the city by the Portuguese in 1468. Jews were slow to return to the town, but by 1750, the Rabbi Elijah Synagogue was built as the first Jewish synagogue in Casablanca. It was destroyed along with much of the town in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
Approximately 28,000 Moroccan Jews immigrated to the State of Israel between 1948 and 1951, many through Casablanca. Casablanca then became a departure point in Operation Yachin, the covert Mossad-organized migration operation from 1961 to 1964. In 2018 it was estimated that there were only 2,500 Moroccan Jews left in Casablanca, while according to the World Jewish Congress there were only 1,000 Moroccan Jews remaining.
Today, the Jewish cemetery of Casablanca is one of the major cemeteries of the city, and many synagogues remain in service, but the city's Jewish community has dwindled. The Moroccan Jewish Museum is a museum established in the city in 1997.
Colleges and universities
Primary and secondary schools
- Belgium: École Belge de Casablanca
- Italian: Scuola "Enrico Mattei"
- Spanish: Instituto Español Juan Ramón Jiménez
Places of worship
Most of the city's places of worship are Muslim mosques. Some of the city's synagogues, such as Ettedgui Synagogue, also remain. There are also Christian churches; some remain in use — particularly by the West African migrant community — while many of the churches built during the colonial period have been repurposed, such as Church of the Sacred Heart.
Casablanca is home to two popular football clubs: Wydad Casablanca and Raja Casablanca—which are rivals. Raja's symbol is an eagle and Wydad's symbol is a star and crescent, a symbol of Islam. These two popular clubs have produced some of Morocco's best players, such as: Salaheddine Bassir, Abdelmajid Dolmy, Baddou Zaki, Aziz Bouderbala, and Noureddine Naybet. Other football teams on top of these two major teams based in the city of Casablanca include Rachad Bernoussi, TAS de Casablanca, Majd Al Madina, and Racing Casablanca.
Casablanca staged the 1961 Pan Arab Games, the 1983 Mediterranean Games, and games during the 1988 Africa Cup of Nations. Morocco was scheduled to host the 2015 African Nations Cup, but decided to decline due to Ebola fears. Morocco was expelled and the tournament was held in Equatorial Guinea.
The Grand Stade de Casablanca is the proposed title of the planned football stadium to be built in the city. Once completed in 2014, it will be used mostly for football matches and will serve as the home of Raja Casablanca, Wydad Casablanca, and the Morocco national football team. The stadium was designed with a capacity of 93,000 spectators, making it one of the highest-capacity stadiums in Africa. Once completed, it will replace the Stade Mohamed V. The initial idea of the stadium was for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, for which Morocco lost their bid to South Africa. Nevertheless, the Moroccan government supported the decision to go ahead with the plans. It will be completed in 2025. The idea of the stadium was also for the 2026 FIFA World Cup, for which Morocco lost their bid to Canada, Mexico and United States. It is now hoping for the 2030 FIFA World Cup which Morocco is co-bidding with either African neighbors Tunisia and Algeria or two European nations Spain and Portugal.
Haja El Hamdaouia, one of the most iconic figures in aita music, was born in Casablanca. Nass El Ghiwane, led by Larbi Batma, came out of Hay Mohammadi in Casablanca. Naima Samih of Derb Sultan gained prominence through the program Mawahib (مواهب). Abdelhadi Belkhayat and Abdelwahab Doukkali are musicians specializing in traditional Moroccan Arabic popular music. Zina Daoudia, Abdelaziz Stati, Abdellah Daoudi, and Said Senhaji are notable Moroccan chaabi musicians.
Abdelakabir Faradjallah founded Attarazat Addahabia, a Moroccan funk band, in 1968. Fadoul, another funk band, formed in the 1970s.
The French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is associated with Casablanca.
Lamalif, a radical leftist political and cultural magazine, was based in Casablanca.
Tayeb Saddiki, described as the father of Moroccan theater, grew up in Casablanca and made his career there. Hanane el-Fadili and Hassan El Fad are popular comedians from Casablanca. Gad Elmaleh is another comedian from Casablanca, though he has made his career abroad.
The École des Beaux-Arts of Casablanca was founded in 1919 by a French Orientalist painter named Édouard Brindeau de Jarny, who started his career teaching drawing at Lycée Lyautey. The Casablanca School—a Modernist art movement and collective including artists such as Farid Belkahia, Mohamed Melihi, and Mohammed Chabâa—developed out of the École des Beaux-Arts of Casablanca in the late 1960s.
L'Uzine is a community-based art and culture space in Casablanca.
Rebel Spirit published The Casablanca Guide (الدليل البيضاوي, Le Guide Casablancais) a comic book about life in Casablanca.
Marcelin Flandrin (1889-1957), a French military photographer, settled in Casablanca and recorded much of the early colonial period in Morocco with his photography. With his staged nude postcard photos taken in Casablanca's colonial brothel quarter, Flandrin was also responsible for disseminating the orientalist image of Moroccan women as sexual objects.
Casablanca has a thriving street photography scene. Yoriyas is prominent among photographers capturing the economic capital's street scenes, and has attracted international attention.
The 1942 American film Casablanca is set in Casablanca and has had a lasting impact on the city's image, despite being filmed in the US. Salut Casa! was a propaganda film brandishing France's purported colonial triumph in its mission civilizatrice in the city.
Love in Casablanca (1991), starring Abdelkarim Derqaoui and Muna Fettou, is one of the first Moroccan films to deal with Morocco's complex realities and depict life in Casablanca with verisimilitude. Nour-Eddine Lakhmari's Casanegra (2008) depicts the harsh realities of Casablanca's working classes. The films Ali Zaoua (2000), Horses of God (2012), and Razzia (2017) of Nabil Ayouch—a French director of Moroccan heritage—deal with street crime, terrorism, and social issues in Casablanca, respectively. The events in Meryem Benm'Barek-Aloïsi's 2018 film Sofia revolve around an illegitimate pregnancy in Casablanca. Ahmed El Maanouni, Hicham Lasri, and Said Naciri are also from Casablanca.
Casablanca's architecture and urban development are historically significant. The city is home to many notable buildings in a variety of styles, including traditional Moroccan architecture, various colonial architectural styles, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Neo-Mauresque, Streamline Moderne, Modernism, Brutalism, and more. During the French Protectorate, the French government described Casablanca as a "laboratory of urbanism."
The work of the Groupe des Architectes Modernes Marocains (GAMMA) on public housing projects—such as Carrières Centrales in Hay Mohammadi—in a style described as vernacular modernism influenced modernist architecture around the world.
The Casablanca Tramway is the rapid transit tram system in Casablanca. As of 2019, the network consists of two lines covering 47.5 km (30 mi), with 71 stops; further lines (T3 and T4) are under construction.
Since the 1970s, Casablanca had planned to build a metro system to offer some relief to the problems of traffic congestion and poor air quality. However, the city council voted to abandon the metro project in 2014 due to high costs, and decided to continue expanding the already operating tram system instead.
Casablanca's main airport is Mohammed V International Airport, Morocco's busiest airport. Regular domestic flights serve Marrakech, Rabat, Agadir, Oujda, Tangier, Al Hoceima, and Laayoune, as well as other cities.
Casablanca is well-served by international flights to Europe, especially French and Spanish airports, and has regular connections to North American, Middle Eastern and sub-Saharan African destinations. New York City, Montreal, Paris, Washington D.C., London and Dubai are important primary destinations.
The older, smaller Casablanca-Anfa Airport to the west of the city, served certain destinations including Damascus, and Tunis, and was largely closed to international civilian traffic in 2006. It has been closed and destroyed to build the "Casablanca Finance City", the new heart of the city of Casablanca. Casablanca Tit Mellil Airport is located in the nearby community of Tit Mellil.
Compagnie de Transports au Maroc (CTM) offers private intercity coach buses on various lines run servicing most notable Moroccan towns, as well as a number of European cities. These run from the CTM Bus Station on Leo Africanus Street near the Central Market in downtown Casablanca. Supratours, an affiliate of ONCF, also offers coach bus service at a slightly lower cost, departing from a station on Wilad Zian Street. There is another bus station farther down on the same street called the Wilad Zian Bus Station; this station is the country's largest bus station, serving over 800 buses daily, catering more to Morocco's lower income population.
Registered taxis in Casablanca are coloured red and known as petit taxis (small taxis), or coloured white and known as grands taxis (big taxis). As is standard Moroccan practice, petits taxis, typically small-four door Dacia Logan, Peugeot 207, or similar cars, provide metered cab service in the central metropolitan areas. Grands taxis, generally older Mercedes-Benz sedans, provide shared mini-bus like service within the city on predefined routes, or shared intercity service. Grands taxis may also be hired for private service by the hour or day.
Casablanca is served by three main railway stations run by the national rail service, the ONCF.
Casa-Voyageurs is the main intercity station, from which trains run south to Marrakech or El Jadida and north to Mohammedia and Rabat, and then on either to Tangier or Meknes, Fes, Taza and Oujda/Nador. It also serves as the southern terminus of the Al-Boraq high speed line from Tangier. A dedicated airport shuttle service to Mohammed V International Airport also has its primary in-city stop at this station, for connections on to further destinations.
Casa-Port serves primarily commuter trains such as the Train Navette Rapide (TNR or Aouita) operating on the Casablanca – Kenitra rail corridor, with some connecting trains running on to Gare de Casa-Voyageurs. The station provides a direct interchange between train and shipping services, and is located near several port-area hotels. It is the nearest station to the old town of Casablanca, and to the modern city centre, around the landmark Casablanca Twin Center. Casa-Port station is being rebuilt in a modern and enlarged configuration. During the construction, the station is still operational. From 2013, it will provide a close connection from the rail network to the city's new tram network.
Casa-Oasis was originally a suburban commuter station which was fully redesigned and rebuilt in the early 21st century, and officially reopened in 2005 as a primary city rail station. Owing to its new status, all southern intercity train services to and from Casa-Voyageurs now call at Casa-Oasis. ONCF stated in 2005 that the refurbishment and upgrading of Casa-Oasis to intercity standards was intended to relieve passenger congestion at Casa-Voyageurs station.
Although Mohammed V International Airport receives most international flights into Morocco, international tourism in Casablanca is not as developed as it is in cities like Marrakesh. Casablanca, however, attracts fewer tourists than those of cities such as Fes and Marrakech.
The Hassan II Mosque, which is the second largest mosque in Africa and the seventh largest in the world, is the city's main tourist attraction. Visitors also come to see the city's rich architectural heritage.
Popular sites for national tourism include shopping centers such as Morocco Mall, Anfa Place, the Marina Shopping Center, and the Tachfine Center. Additional sites include the Corniche and the beach of Ain Diab, and parks such as the Arab League Park or the Sindibad theme park.
- Amal Ayouch (born 1966) – stage and film actress
- Salaheddine Bassir – Moroccan footballer
- Laarbi Batma – Moroccan musician and artist, founding member of Nas El Ghiwan
- Larbi Benbarek – Moroccan footballer
- Miriem Bensalah-Chaqroun – Moroccan businesswoman
- Jean-Paul Bertrand-Demanes – French footballer
- Frida Boccara – French singer, Winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 1969
- Merieme Chadid – Moroccan astronomer
- Jean-Charles de Castelbajac – French fashion designer
- Dizzy DROS – Moroccan rapper
- Gad Elmaleh – French/Canadian comedian
- La Fouine – Moroccan-French rapper
- El Haqed – Moroccan rapper
- Serge Haroche – French physicist who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics
- Shatha Hassoun – Moroccan/Iraqi singer
- Lydia Hatuel-Czuckermann – Israeli Olympic fencer
- Hicham Mesbahi – Moroccan boxer
- French Montana – American rapper
- Nawal El Moutawakel – Olympic champion
- Noureddine Naybet – Moroccan footballer
- Mostafa Nissaboury – Moroccan poet
- Hakim Noury – Moroccan film director
- Maurice Ohana – French composer
- Faouzia Ouihya – Moroccan-Canadian singer
- Jean Reno – French Hollywood actor
- Daniel Sivan – professor
- Alain Souchon – French songwriter
- Frank Stephenson – award-winning automobile designer
- Hassan Saada – Moroccan boxer arrested for alleged rape before Olympic match
- Sidney Taurel – naturalized American CEO of Eli Lilly and Company from 1998 to 2008
- Richard Virenque – French cyclist
- Muhammad Zarqtuni – Moroccan nationalist and resistance leader
- Abdallah Zrika – Moroccan poet
- Nabil Dirar – Moroccan footballer
- Hamza Mendyl – Moroccan footballer
- Achraf Dari – Moroccan footballer
- Badr Gaddarine – Moroccan footballer
In popular culture
- The 1942 film Casablanca (starring Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart) is supposed to have been set in Casablanca, although it was filmed entirely in Los Angeles and doesn't feature a single Arab or North African character with a speaking role. The film depicts Casablanca as the scene of power struggle between various foreign powers, which had much more to do with the Tangier of the time. The film has achieved worldwide popularity since its release. Nominated for eight Academy Awards, it won three, including Best Picture.
- A Night in Casablanca (1946) was the 12th Marx Brothers' movie. The film stars Groucho Marx, Chico Marx, and Harpo Marx. It was directed by Archie Mayo and written by Joseph Fields and Roland Kibbee. The film contains the song "Who's Sorry Now?", with music by Ted Snyder and lyrics by Bert Kalmar and Harry Ruby. It is sung in French by Lisette Verea playing the part of Beatrice Rheiner, and then later sung in English. Liszt's "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2" is played twice, once by Chico on piano as an introduction to the "Beer Barrel Polka", and again by Harpo on the harp.
- The city is featured in The Mysterious Caravan (1975), volume 54 in the original Hardy Boys series.
- Casablanca is the setting for several chapters in Doubleshot, a 2000 James Bond novel by Raymond Benson. In the novel, one of the characters mentions that the 1942 film was shot in Hollywood and not on location.
- Casablanca is one of the key locations in the 2006 video game Dreamfall, as it is where the primary protagonist of the game, Zoë Castillo, lives. Although the city is imagined in the year 2219, much of the present-day architecture is used for inspiration.
- Casablanca is the setting for the first act of the 2016 World War II romantic thriller film Allied starring Brad Pitt and Marion Cotillard.
Twin towns – sister cities
Casablanca is twinned with:
- "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- "HCP : Le Grand Casablanca compte 4.270.750 habitants". aujourdhui.ma. Retrieved 25 April 2020.(in French)
- Kjeilen, Tore (April 2020). "Casablanca - LookLex Encyclopaedia". looklex.com. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
- "Discovering Casablanca". Africa-ata.org. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- André., Adam (1969). Histoire de Casablanca '(des origines à 1914) '. Ophrys. pp. 14–17. OCLC 479295174.
- André., Adam (1969). Histoire de Casablanca '(des origines à 1914) '. Ophrys. pp. 67–68. OCLC 479295174.
- "Casablanca". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Museum of History & Holocaust Education: Creating Community Collaboration". Kennesaw.edu. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Britannica, Casablanca, britannica.com, USA, accessed on July 7, 2019
- S. Lévy, Pour une histoire linguistique du Maroc, in Peuplement et arabisation au Maghreb occidental: dialectologie et histoire, 1998, pp.11–26 (ISBN 84-86839-85-8)
- Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Editions du Cerf. p. 941. ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Guide to places of the world. Reader's Digest Association. April 1987. p. 133. ISBN 9780276398261. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- The International City of Tangier, Second Edition. Stanford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8047-4351-8. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Aldosari, Ali (September 2006). Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1254. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Srhir, Khalid Ben (19 April 2005). Britain And Morocco During The Embassy Of John Drummond Hay, 1845–1886. RoutledgeCurzon. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-7146-5432-4. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Pennel, CR: Morocco from Empire to Independence, Oneworld, Oxford, 2003, p 121
- Pennel, CR: Morocco from Empire to Independence, Oneworld, Oxford, 2003, p 149.
- Comité des foires du Maroc Auteur du texte (1917-08-15). "France-Maroc : revue mensuelle illustrée : organe du Comité des foires du Maroc / directeur Alfred de Tarde". Gallica (in French). Retrieved 2019-10-17.
- Adam, André (1968). Histoire de Casablanca, des origines à 1914. Éditions Ophrys. p. 107.
- Adam, André (1968). Histoire de Casablanca, des origines à 1914. Éditions Ophrys. p. 112.
- Adam, André (1968). Histoire de Casablanca: des origines à 1914. Aix-en-Provence: Ophrys. p. 133.
- Cohen, Jean-Louis (2002). Casablanca : colonial myths and architectural ventures. Monique Eleb. New York. ISBN 1-58093-087-5. OCLC 49225856.
- Adam, André (1968). Histoire de Casablanca, des origines à 1914. Éditions Ophrys. p. 107.
- Miller, Susan Gilson (2013). A history of modern Morocco. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-62469-5. OCLC 855022840.
- Hodebert, Laurent. ""Laprade et Prost, du Maroc à Génissiat, du sol des villes aux édifices", journal de l'exposition "De la construction au récit" au CAUE 74". Journal de l'exposition de la construction au récit, être de son temps et de son lieu pour l'architecture du XXe siècle.
- Albert Habib Hourani, Malise Ruthven (2002). "A history of the Arab peoples". Harvard University Press. p.323. ISBN 0-674-01017-5
- Relations internationales Paris (in French). Société d'études historiques des relations internationales contemporaines. 2001. p. 358.
- Miller, Susan Gilson (2013). A history of modern Morocco. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9781139624695. OCLC 855022840.
- "1942: November 8-16: Naval Battle of Casablanca". public1.nhhcaws.local. Retrieved 2019-07-13.[permanent dead link]
- Miller, Susan Gilson (2013). A history of modern Morocco. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9781139624695. OCLC 855022840.
- "Evènements du 7 avril 1947 à Casablanca, un tournant décisif dans la lutte pour la liberté et l'indépendance". Atlasinfo.fr: l'essentiel de l'actualité de la France et du Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 2019-08-29.
- "7-8 décembre 1952 : Quand les Casablancais se sont soulevés contre l'assassinat de Ferhat Hached". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- "16 Dead in Casablanca Blast". New York Times. 25 December 1953. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Watson, William E. (2003). Tricolor and Crescent: France and the Islamic World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-275-97470-1. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "La Conférence de Casablanca". Zamane (in French). 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
- "4 au 7 janvier 1961 : La Conférence de Casablanca, prélude à la création de l'OUA". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 2019-05-28.
- "African States of the Casablanca Charter | UIA Yearbook Profile | Union of International Associations". uia.org. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
- Frédéric Abécassis. Questions about jewish migrations from Morocco: ”Operation mural” (summer 1961) : return from diaspora or formation of a new diaspora ?. Questions about jewish migrations from Morocco, Jun 2012, Jérusalem, Israel. pp.73–82. ffhalshs-00778664f https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/778664/filename/NEW_DIASPORAS._THE_JERUSALEM_WORKSHOP._JUNE_2012.pdf
- Par Omar Brouksy, "Que s'est-il vraiment passé le 23 mars 1965?", Jeune Afrique, 21 March 2005. Archived.
- "Il y avait au moins quinze mille lycéens. Je n'avais jamais vu un rassemblement d'adolescents aussi impressionnant" as quoted in Brousky, 2005.
- Parker & Boum, Historical Dictionary of Morocco (2006), p. 213.
- Miller, A History of Modern Morocco (2013), pp. 162–168–169.
- ”Permettez-moi de vous dire qu'il n'y a pas de danger aussi grave pour l'Etat que celui d'un prétendu intellectuel. Il aurait mieux valu que vous soyez tous illettrés.” Quoted in Rollinde, Le Mouvement marocain des droits de l'Homme (2003), p. 123.
- Susan Ossman, Picturing Casablanca: Portraits of Power in a Modern City; University of California Press, 1994; p. 37.
- Cooley, John K. (25 August 1981). "A 'Black Saturday' Shadows the Future Of Hassan's Morocco". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- Miller, Susan Gilson. (2013). A history of modern Morocco. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-139-62469-5. OCLC 855022840.
- Park, Thomas Kerlin; Boum, Aomar (2006). Historical Dictionary of Morocco. Scarecrow Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8108-5341-6. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Mili, Amel (2009). Exploring the Relation Between Gender Politics and Representative Government in the Maghreb: Analytical and Empirical Observations. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-109-20412-4. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Dakwar, Jamil; Goldstein, Eric (2004). Morocco: Human Rights at a Crossroads. Human Rights Watch. p. 25. GGKEY:WTWR4502X87. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- McClellan, James Edward; Dorn, Harold (14 April 2006). Science And Technology in World History: An Introduction. JHU Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8018-8360-6. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Terror Cell: 'Police Hold Fifth Man'". News.sky.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Casablanca on alert after suicide bombings". Independent Newspapers Online. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- McTighe, Kristen (2011-07-06). "Creating a Children's Refuge in Morocco's Worst Slums". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Pellow, Thomas; Morsy, Magali (1983). La relation de Thomas Pellow: une lecture du Maroc au 18e siècle. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. p. 38. ISBN 978-2-86538-050-3. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Cohen, Jean-Louis; Eleb, Monique (2002). Casablanca: colonial myths and architectural ventures. Monacelli Press. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-58093-087-1. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Wordell, Malcolm Taber; Seiler, Edwin Norton; Ayling, Keith (10 July 2007). "Wildcats" Over Casablanca: U.S. Navy Fighters in Operation Torch. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-57488-722-8. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Pierre, Jean-Luc (2002). Casablanca et la France: XIXe-XXe siècles : mémoires croisées. Eddif. p. 23. ISBN 978-9981-09-086-6. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Climate Averages for Casablanca" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Casablanca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Monthly Dakar water temperature chart". Seatemperature.org. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- "Les bonnes raisons d'investir à Casablanca". Casainvest.ma. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Casablanca, capitale economique du Maroc". Topbladi.com. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "votre partenaire pour investir à Casablanca au Maroc". CasaInvest.ma. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "Non-airline partners". Royalairmaroc.com. 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Royal Air Maroc.(Africa/Middle East)(Brief Article)." Air Transport World. 1 July 2004. Retrieved on 19 October 2009. [dead link]
- "Casablanca: Nouaceur abritera le futur siège de la RAM[permanent dead link]." L'Économiste. 18 August 2009. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
- "La Préfecture de Casablanca (in French)". Casablanca.ma. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- "Religious Composition by Country" (PDF). Pewforum.org. 2012.
- MOROCCO 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT
- Pope Francis’ Visit to Morocco Raises Hopes for Its Christians
- "IMMIGRANTS, BY PERIOD OF IMMIGRATION, COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND LAST COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE" (PDF). CBS, Statistical Abstract of Israel. Government of Israel. 2009.
- Jewish in Morocco
- Sauvagnargues, Philippe (15 February 2011). "Arab World's Sole Jewish Museum Attests to Moroccan Tolerance". Daily Star Beirut – via ProQuest.
- J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 1959
- "Les 10 plus belles synagogues du Maroc". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- "Vidéo. La musique électronique s'invite au Sacré-Coeur". fr.le360.ma (in French). Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- African Concord. Concord Press of Nigeria. 1989. p. 43. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- West Africa. West Africa Publishing Company, Limited. 2003. p. 38. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Alami, Aida (2018-12-20). "The Soccer Politics of Morocco". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
- "Equatorial Guinea to host 2015 Cup". BBC. 14 November 2014.
- "الحاجة الحمداوية.. صوت "العيطة" المغربية الذي يرفض الاعتزال". فبراير.كوم | موقع مغربي إخباري شامل يتجدد على مدار الساعة (in French). 2019-07-25. Archived from the original on 2019-12-10. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- "Nass El Ghiwane : Un patrimoine historique". Zamane (in French). 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- "نعيمة سميح.. الطرب المغربي التي تحدث كل الصعاب". فبراير.كوم | موقع مغربي إخباري شامل يتجدد على مدار الساعة. 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
- "Abdelhadi Belkhayat revient sur scène avec une chanson patriotique !". 2M (in French). Retrieved 2020-02-01.
- Moore, Marcus J. (2019-09-17). "The Making of Moroccan Funk". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- "The Arabic Funk Of Fadoul, "Morocco's Answer To James Brown," Finally Released". OkayAfrica. 2016-01-04. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- "Despite Regional Upheaval, Moroccans Flock To Festival". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
- "The Gritty Rise Of Issam". Gentlemen's Quarterly. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- Hekking, Morgan (2019-06-21). "14th Annual Jazzablanca Set to Open July 2". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- "Casablanca : Le Tremplin L'Boulevard dévoile ses six vainqueurs". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- Visite guidée au musée Dar Al Ala, retrieved 2019-12-01
- "محمد زفزاف و"صنعة الكاتب"". جريدة الدستور الاردنية (in Arabic). Retrieved 2021-03-21.
- قصة الطيب الصديقي, retrieved 2020-02-01
- H24info. "Vidéo du jour. Gad Elmaleh enflamme le lycée Lyautey". H24info (in French). Retrieved 2020-02-01.
- Marcilhac, Félix; Majorelle, Jacques (1988). La vie et l'œuvre de Jacques Majorelle: 1886-1962 (in French). www.acr-edition.com. ISBN 978-2-86770-031-6.
- Irbouh, Hamid. (2013). Art in the Service of Colonialism : French Art Education in Morocco 1912-1966. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-036-0. OCLC 994563861.
- Basciano, Oliver (2019-04-12). "Give us a swirl: How Mohamed Melehi became Morocco's modernist master". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-12-01.
- MATIN, LE. "Le Matin - L'Académie des arts traditionnels fête ses lauréats". Le Matin (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-11-25. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "Le folk social tout en douceur de Ÿuma" (in French). 2017-11-27. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
- "افتتاح معرض "دليل الدار البيضاء" بالعاصمة الاقتصادية – أحداث.أنفو". 2019-04-21. Archived from the original on 2019-04-21. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- "Street art brings a pop of colour to Casablanca". euronews. 2019-07-23. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- Goulven, Joseph; Flandrin, Marcelin (1928). Casablanca: de 1889 à nos jours : album de photographies rétrospectives et modernes montrant le développement de la ville (in French). Casablanca: Editions photographiques Mars. OCLC 470477579.
- Nawny, Amine (2017-01-24). "Bousbir: Colonie des prostituées d'antan". Tibb Magazine (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2017-10-11.
- "Surprising photos of real life in Casablanca". Travel. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
- Teicher, Jordan G. (April 26, 2017). "Casablanca: A City Nothing Like the Film". New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
- "LES CINÉMAS DE L'EPOQUE A CASABLANCA.6/6". Centerblog (in French). 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
- "Cinéma : 245 salles fermées entre 1980 et 2017". La Vie éco (in French). 2019-02-16. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
- Pennell, C. R. (2000). Morocco Since 1830: A History. Hurst. ISBN 978-1-85065-426-1.
- Admin (2011-10-21). "When Tangier Was Casablanca: Rick's Café & Dean's Bar". Tangier American Legation. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- Von Osten, Marion. Müller, Andreas. "Contact Zones". Pages Magazine. Retrieved 2019-10-18.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Kenny, Glenn (2021-03-18). "'Before the Dying of the Light' Review: Moroccan Cinema's Attempted Revolution". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
- "" Casa Negra " remporte la médaille de bronze". aujourdhui.ma. Aujourd'hui le Maroc. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Karim Boukhari (12 December 2008). "Nari, nari, Casanegra". telquel-online.com. TelQuel. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Goodman, Sarah (2019-03-17). "Behind the Silver Screen: A Conversation with Morocco's Nabil Ayouch". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
- "" Sofia " : le récit d'un délit de grossesse au Maroc" (in French). 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- [email protected], Pages Magazine. "Contact Zones". pagesmagazine.net. Retrieved 2020-07-03.
- "Adaptations of Vernacular Modernism in Casablanca". Retrieved 2020-07-03.
- Folkers, Antoni S.; Buiten, Belinda A. C. van (2019-07-22). Modern Architecture in Africa: Practical Encounters with Intricate African Modernity. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-01075-1.
- "Casablanca tram contracts awarded". Railway Gazette. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- "Inauguration Officielle De La Ligne T2 Du Tramway De Casablanca Et De L'extension De La Ligne T1" [Official Inauguration of Line T2 of the Casablanca Tramway and the Extension of Line T1] (PDF) (Press release) (in French). Casablanca. Casa Transport SA. 2019-01-23. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- Korso, Merouane (7 July 2014). "Le métro fantôme de Casablanca disparaît de nouveau…au profit du Tramway" [The ghost metro of Casablanca disappears again... for the benefit of the tramway] (in French). Maghreb Emergent. Archived from the original on 2015-11-25. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Baldé, Assanatou (4 July 2014). "Maroc : le métro de Casablanca tombe à l'eau..." [Morocco: The Casablanca Metro falls overboard...] (in French). Afrik.com. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Le tram, mais pas de métro aérien à Casablanca" [Tram yes, but no elevated metro in Casablanca]. Le Figaro (in French). 3 July 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "Page d'accueil". www.supratours.ma. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- Planet, Lonely. "Land transport in Casablanca". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2020-03-01. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- "مشاكل "محطة أولاد زيان" تشغل جماعة البيضاء". Hespress (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- Hekking, Morgan (2019-08-26). "ONDA: Moroccan Airports Received Over 2.3 Million Passengers in July". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- News, Morocco World (2019-05-12). "Tourist Arrivals in Morocco Rose by 4.1% in March 2019". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- Kingfisher Geography encyclopedia. ISBN 1-85613-582-9. Page 137
- "Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca". Sacred Destinations. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Blondeau, Mathilde Auteur. (2016). Casablanca courts-circuits. Editions Ethnic attitude. ISBN 978-9954-37-750-5. OCLC 1049194278.
- "Le parc Sindibad réaménage ses tarifs" (in French). La Quotidienne. 2016-12-08. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
- "Afrique Sauvage" (in French). Parc Sindibad. Retrieved 2019-07-09.
- "Le plus grand centre commercial d'Afrique, le Morocco Mall ouvre ses portes". Le journal du net. Archived from the original on 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Morocco boxer held over alleged sex attack in Olympic Village, World News & Top Stories – The Straits Times". straitstimes.com. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Epstein, Julius J.; Epstein, Philip G.; Koch, Howard; Burnett, Murray; Alison, Joan; Edeson, Arthur; Steiner, Max; Curtiz, Michael; Bogart, Humphrey; Bergman, Ingrid; Henreid, Paul (2015). Casablanca. Menart Records. OCLC 922863437.
- "When Tangier Was Casablanca: Rick's Café & Dean's Bar". Tangier American Legation. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
- "Jumelages". casablanca.ma (in French). Casablanca. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
- "List of Sister Cities". english.busan.go.kr. Busan Metropolitan City. Retrieved 2020-10-19.