Centripetal force

A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek"[1]) is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. The direction of the centripetal force is always orthogonal to the motion of the body and towards the fixed point of the instantaneous center of curvature of the path. Isaac Newton described it as "a force by which bodies are drawn or impelled, or in any way tend, towards a point as to a centre".[2] In the theory of Newtonian mechanics, gravity provides the centripetal force causing astronomical orbits.

A particle is disturbed from its uniform linear motion by a series of short kicks (1, 2, …), giving its trajectory a nearly circular shape. The force is referred to as a centripetal force in the limit of a continuously acting force directed towards the center of curvature of the path.

One common example involving centripetal force is the case in which a body moves with uniform speed along a circular path. The centripetal force is directed at right angles to the motion and also along the radius towards the centre of the circular path.[3][4] The mathematical description was derived in 1659 by the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens.[5]

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