Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)


The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.

Chamber of Deputies

Cámara de Diputados
LXIV Legislature
Type
Type
History
FoundedOctober 4, 1824 (1824-10-04)
Leadership
Laura Rojas Hernández (PAN)
since 5 September 2019
Structure
Seats500
Political groups
Government (332)

Opposition (168)

Elections
Parallel voting
300 Seats elected by first-past-the-post
200 seats elected by largest remainder method
[1]
Last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Meeting place
Chamber of Deputies
San Lázaro Legislative Palace
Mexico City
Mexico
Website
Official Website of the Chamber of Deputies
Footnotes
"Diputadas y Diputados por Entidad Federativa" http://sitl.diputados.gob.mx/LXIV_leg/info_diputados.php

History


Bicameral legislature, including the Chamber of Deputies, was established on 4 October 1824. Unicameral Congress was in place from 7 September 1857 to 13 November 1874.[2]

After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location.[3]

Composition


The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: diputado federal) for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Elections are every 3 years.

Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts (with each state divided into at least two districts). The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare.

From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this changed with the 2018 elections, and deputies are now permitted to run for re-election once consecutively. A deputy who has served two terms may serve again after sitting out one term. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections.

Last election


2018

Party District Proportional Total
seats
+/−
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
National Regeneration Movement709,8401.27820,972,57337.2584189+154
National Action Party697,5951.25510,096,58817.934183−25
Institutional Revolutionary Party4,351,8247.7819,310,52316.543845−158
Party of the Democratic Revolution124,8080.2202,967,9695.271221−35
Ecologist Green Party1,429,8022.5502,695,4054.791116−31
Citizens' Movement268,8760.4802,485,1984.411027+1
Labor Party67,4290.1202,211,7533.93461+55
New Alliance Party705,4321.2601,391,3762.4702−8
Social Encounter Party54,9060.1001,353,9412.40056+48
MORENA–PT–PES[a]23,513,13242.01210
PAN–PRD–MC[b]14,381,87225.7063
PRI–PVEM–PNA[c]6,862,37212.2613
Independents539,3470.960539,3470.9600−1
Write-ins32,6250.0632,9590.06
Invalid/blank votes2,227,5733.982,242,6153.98
Total55,967,43310030056,300,2471002005000
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03962.2089,994,03963.21
Source: INE

a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, and 56 by the PES

b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, and 9 by the PRD

c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, and 2 by the PNA

Popular Vote
MORENA
37.25%
PAN
17.93%
PRI
16.54%
PRD
5.27%
PVEM
4.79%
MC
4.41%
PT
3.93%
PNA
2.47%
PES
2.40%
Independents
0.96%
Write-ins
0.06%
Invalid/blank
3.98%
Seats
MORENA
37.8%
PAN
16.6%
PT
12.2%
PES
11.2%
PRI
9.0%
MC
5.4%
PRD
4.2%
PVEM
3.2%
PNA
0.4%
Independents
0.0%
Chamber of Deputies party composition
Electoral alliances in the Chamber of Deputies. Juntos Haremos Historia 306 seats, Por México al Frente 131 seats, Todos por México 63 seats

See also


References