Charles X Gustav of Sweden

Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Swedish: Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria (1441–1448) and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI. He led Sweden during the Second Northern War, enlarging the Swedish Empire. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland (Öland),[1] before ascending to the Swedish throne. From 1655 to 1657, he was also Grand Duke of Lithuania.[2]

Charles X Gustav
Karl X Gustav by Sébastien Bourdon
King of Sweden
Duke of Bremen and Verden
Reign6 June 1654 – 13 February 1660
SuccessorCharles XI
Born(1622-11-08)8 November 1622
Nyköping Castle, Sweden
Died13 February 1660(1660-02-13) (aged 37)
Gothenburg, Sweden
Burial4 November 1660
IssueCharles XI
Gustaf Carlson, Count of Börringe and Lindholm (ill.)
FatherJohn Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg
MotherCatherine of Sweden
SignatureCharles X Gustav's signature

His numbering as Charles X derives from a 16th-century invention. The Swedish king Charles IX (1604–1611) chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden. This king was the fourth actual King Charles,[3] but has never been called Charles IV.

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