Chinese Super League


The Chinese Football Association Super League (simplified Chinese: 中国足球协会超级联赛; traditional Chinese: 中國足球協會超級聯賽; pinyin: Zhōngguó Zúqiú Xiéhuì Chāojí Liánsài), commonly known as Chinese Super League (simplified Chinese: 中超联赛; traditional Chinese: 中超聯賽; pinyin: Zhōngchāo Liánsài) or CSL, currently known as the China Ping An Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons,[1] is the highest tier of professional football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association (CFA).

Chinese Super League (CSL)
Founded2004; 17 years ago (2004)
CountryChina
ConfederationAFC
Number of teams16
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toChina League One
Domestic cup(s)Chinese FA Cup
Chinese FA Super Cup
International cup(s)AFC Champions League
Current championsJiangsu Suning
(2020)
Most championshipsGuangzhou
(8 titles)
Most appearancesYang Zhi (350)
Top goalscorerElkeson (107 goals)
TV partnersCCTV
Several regional channels
PPTV
WebsiteCSL-China.com
Current: 2021 Chinese Super League

The Chinese Super League was created by the rebranding of the former top division Chinese Football Association Jia-A League in 2004 (see Chinese Jia-A League, not to be confused with Chinese Football Association Jia League, which is the current second-tier league).

Originally contested by 12 teams in its inaugural year, the league has since expanded, with 16 teams competing in the 2020 season. A total of 32 teams have competed in the CSL since its inception, with 8 of them winning the title: Guangzhou (eight), Shandong Taishan (three), Shenzhen, Dalian Shide, Changchun Yatai, Beijing Guoan, Shanghai Port, and Jiangsu (all one title). The current Super League champions are Jiangsu, who won the 2020 edition.

The Chinese Super League is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in China, with an average attendance of 24,107 for league matches in the 2018 season. This is the twelfth-highest of any domestic professional sports league in the world and the sixth-highest of any professional association football league in the world, behind Bundesliga, Premier League, La Liga, Serie A and Liga MX.

The League is now running under the authorization of the Chinese Football Association, The CSL Company, which is currently the commercial branch of the League, is a corporation in which the CFA and all of the member clubs act as shareholders. It is planned that the CFA will ultimately transfer their shares of The CSL Company to the clubs and professional union which consists of CSL clubs will be established as the League's management entity.[citation needed]

Overview


Competition

Unlike many top European leagues like Bundesliga, Premier League, La Liga, and Serie A, the Chinese Super League starts in February or March and ends in November or December. In each season, each club plays each of the other clubs twice, once at home and another away. With 16 clubs currently in the Super League, teams play 30 games each, for a total of 240 games in the season.

The two lowest-placed teams by the end of the season are relegated to the China League One and the top two teams from the League One are promoted, taking their places.

The League position is determined by the highest number of points accumulated during the season. If two or more teams are level on points, tiebreakers are, in the following order

  1. Highest number of points accumulated in matches between the teams concerned;
  2. Highest goal difference in matches between the teams concerned;
  3. Highest number of goals scored in matches between the teams concerned;
  4. Highest points accumulated by the reserve teams in the reserve league
  5. Highest points accumulated by the U19 teams in the U19 league
  6. Highest goal difference;
  7. Highest number of goals scored;
  8. Fair-Play points (Clubs deduct 1 point for a yellow card, and 3 points for a red card);
  9. Draw by lot;

Chinese Super League clubs in international competition

When the Asian Football Confederation started the AFC Champions League in the 2002–03 season, China was given 2 slots in the competition. Qualification for the AFC Champions League changed in 2009 as AFC distributed 4 slots to China. The top three of the league, as well as the winner of the Chinese FA Cup, qualify for the AFC Champions League of the next year. If the FA Cup finalists finish the league in 3rd or higher, the 4th place team in the league will take the Champions League spot.

Between the 2002–03 and the 2017 season, Chinese clubs won the AFC Champions League two times, behind Korean K-League with five wins, and Japanese J-League with three wins.

The Chinese Super League is currently first in the AFC Club Competitions Ranking of Asian leagues based on their performances in Asian competitions over a four-year period and FIFA ranking for national teams.[2]

Development

On 17 November 2017, the Vice-president of the CFA, Li Yuyi, disclosed the expansion plan of the top four level leagues of China. The Chinese Super League is planning to expand to 18 clubs, followed by China League One with 20 clubs, China League Two with 32 clubs and the Chinese Football Association Member Association Champions League with 48 clubs.[3]

Also, the CFA stated that "we should build CSL the 6th best league in the world."[citation needed]

History


Origins

The Chinese National Football League was started in 1951, namely the National Football Conference, it was a round-robin tournament with 8 teams participating. In 1954, the competition was renamed as National Football League, the League was divided into two Divisions in 1956 and promotion/relegation between the two tiers started since 1957. In the 1980s, the Chinese Football Association allowed enterprise entities to sponsor and invest in football teams. The League entered Semi-pro period in 1987, sponsored by Goldlion Group, the league played its first ever home and away season, teams participating includes the top 7 clubs of 1986 Division 1 together with Liaoning, who was 1985 season champions but did not compete in 1986 league season due to participate in Asian Club Championship, the tournament was named as National Football League Division 1 Group A, shortly as Chinese Jia-A League, the other 8 clubs of Division 1 and top 4 clubs from Division 2 participated in Chinese Jia-B League. The two groups merged in 1988 season but divided again in 1989.

In 1994, as part of the sports system reform project, the Chinese Jia-A League became the country's first professional football league. The Jia-A league achieved success in its early years, but in the late ’90s heavy criticism existed towards the League's management practices like the lack of continuity in key policies, and some of its member clubs was criticised for a lack of sustainable development. At the same time, the league was affected by gambling, match-fixing and corruption.[4] the chaotic state of Jia-A causes troubled investment environment with sponsors and club owners bowing out. The Chinese Football Association then decided to reform the League system, which ultimately led to the creation of the Chinese Super League. The initial conception is to introduce truly commercial methods and let professional football market operate more freely, drawing on the experience of professional Leagues in Europe to redesign the league structure and strengthen professionalism.

On January 13, 2001, Yan Shiduo, vice-president of the Chinese Football Association, discussed about setting up a new professional league system.[5] In 2002, the CFA made a decision to establish the Chinese Super League, which started in 2004.

Foundation

Compared to the Jia-A, the CSL is a lot more demanding on teams. The CFA and CSL committee imposed a range of minimum criteria to ensure professional management and administration, financial probity, and a youth development program at every club. The CSL published first edition of CSL club criteria in 2002 and revised it several times, club license system was introduced since 2004. Besides the regular professional league, the CSL also has a reserve league, and Youth super league plays in U-19,U-17,U-15,U-14 and U-13 levels.

The CSL and China League One's goals are to promote high quality and high-level competition, introduce advanced managerial concepts to the market, enforce the delivery of minimum standards of professionalism, encourage the influx of more higher quality foreign coaches and players, and gradually establish the European system for player registrations and transfers.

Summary

The first CSL season began in 2004, with 12 teams in the league. The inaugural season was plagued with controversy, which continued from the former league, Jia-A, and where, since 1999, scandals such as match fixing and gambling had been uncovered.[6] This resulted in loss of interest in the domestic game, low attendances and great financial losses.[citation needed]

The original plan was to have one relegated team and two promoted teams for the 2004 season and 2005 season, thus increasing the number of teams in 2006 to 14. But the CFA's decisions caused the relegations to be cancelled for these 2 years.

For the 2005 season, the league expanded to 14 teams after Wuhan Huanghelou and Zhuhai Zhongbang won promotion from China League One. The Zhuhai team, formerly Zhuhai Anping, had been bought by the Shanghai Zhongbang real estate company and relocated to Shanghai for the 2005 season, and subsequently renamed to Shanghai Zobon.

In 2006, the league was planned to expand to 16 teams with the newly promoted Xiamen Lanshi and Changchun Yatai. However, Sichuan Guancheng withdrew before the start of the season, leaving only 15 teams when the season started on March 11. Shanghai Liancheng Zobon, after another change of ownership, was renamed Shanghai United.

In 2007, the league was again planned to be expanded to 16 teams, but once again it found itself one team short. Shanghai United's owner, Zhu Jun, bought a major share in local rival Shanghai Shenhua and merged the two teams. As a result, Shanghai Shenhua retained its name as it already had a strong fanbase in the city, while Shanghai United pulled out of the league.

In 2008, the season started with 16 clubs participating for the first time, however Wuhan protested against punishments made by the CFA after a match against Beijing Guo'an, and announced its immediate withdrawal from the league, which left the season to finish with 15 clubs.

Since 2009, the league has run with 16 stable clubs participating in each year. Two are relegated to China League One, and two promoted from China League One each season.

In 2010, the CSL was beset by a scandal going right to the top of the CFA. The Chinese government took nationwide action against football gambling, match-fixing and corruption, and former CFA vice presidents Xie Yalong, Nan Yong and Yang Yimin were arrested.[7] On February 22, 2010, CFA relegate Guangzhou Yiyao for match-fixing in 2006 China League One Season, as well as Chengdu Blades for match-fixing in 2007 China League One season.[8]

In 2011, the anti-corruption movement had visibly improved the image of the CSL, with increases to attendance. Clubs such as Guangzhou Evergrande and Shanghai Shenhua began investing heavily in foreign stars. After former Fluminense midfielder Darío Conca transferred in 2011, some notable signings during the 2012 seasons included former Chelsea forward Didier Drogba and Nicolas Anelka, former Barcelona midfielder Seydou Keita and Fábio Rochemback, former Sevilla forward Frédéric Kanouté, former Blackburn Rovers forward Yakubu and former Borussia Dortmund forward Lucas Barrios. Former Japanese national team coach Takeshi Okada took up the reins as the new coach of Hangzhou Greentown, former Argentina national team coach Sergio Batista replaced Jean Tigana as Shanghai Shenhua's head coach, and former Italy national team and Juventus manager Marcello Lippi replaced Lee Jang-Soo as Guangzhou Evergrande's head coach.

In 2012, Guangzhou Evergrande became the first Chinese team to defend their CSL title, and to win consecutive titles. However, eight-time champions of Professional League, Dalian Shide, had seriously financial problems during the entire season, especially after the arrest of club owner Xu Ming. They had planned to merge with Dalian Aerbin, the other CSL club of the city, but the Chinese Football Association blocked the merger at the end, as Dalian Shide failed to cancel their registration as a CSL club before the merger. So Aerbin effectively purchased and swallowed up Shide, including the club's famed academy and training facilities. Dalian Shide was officially dissolved on 31 January 2013. The country's most successful club had ceased to exist.

In 2013, David Beckham became first global ambassador for CSL. Guangzhou Evergrande won AFC Champions League for first time. In February 2013, Shanghai Shenhua was stripped of its 2003 Chinese Ji-A league title as part of a broad match-fixing crackdown. In total, 12 clubs were handed punishments, while 33 people, including former CFA vice-president Xie Yalong and Nan Yong, received life bans. Also in 2013, Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao won the Asian Champions League title, the first time a Chinese Super League team has won that award.

In 2014, Guangzhou Evergrande became the first Chinese club to win four consecutive professional league titles.

In 2015, ex-Tottenham midfielder Paulinho moved to Guangzhou Evergrande at the age of 27, Guangzhou Evergrande become AFC champions League champions for second time.

In 2016, Chinese super league became a rising power in the global transfer market. Brazil international Ramires, Colombia international Jackson Martinez and Fredy Guarin were among the notable signings, while Pavel Nedvěd was appointed as second global ambassador for CSL.

2017 saw the Chinese Super League (CSL) catapulted to global attention. Players such as Oscar, Carlos Tevez, Ricardo Carvalho, Alexandre Pato and Mikel John Obi all moved east during the year. Guangzhou Evergrande won their 7th consecutive league title.

2018, in the 28th round of the 2018 Chinese Super League, the two title favourites Shanghai SIPG and Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao clashed head-to-head, with Shanghai SIPG coming away with 5 - 4 hard win over Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao to open up the points gap with Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao. At last, Shanghai SIPG won the 2018 Chinese Super League Champion , thus breaking Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao's 7-year monopoly of the Chinese Super League.

At the 2019 CSL Mobilization Meeting, the CFA Referees Committee officially announced that a professional referee system will be introduced in the CSL in 2019, with two foreign referees including Mark Clattenburg, Milorad Mažić, and three local referees to be officially hired as the first professional referees in the history of Chinese football. The two foreign professional referees will be mainly responsible for enforcing the Chinese Super League, but will also provide coaching and training for local referees.

Affected by COVID-19,the 2020 Chinese Super League has been postponed to July 25. The 16 teams will be divided into two groups to play in Suzhou and Dalian. This year's league was temporarily changed to a "Group stage + Knockout" format and adopted a tournament system.

Planning cooperation structure


The preparatory committee of the Chinese Professional Football League was established on May 27, 2016,[9] with members from 5 CSL clubs, 3 CL1 clubs and 2 CL2 clubs, includes two CFA representatives. The blueprint is to have all of the three professional level leagues of China, the Chinese Super League, China Football League one and China Football League two separated from the League structure of the CFA. The PFL will be a private company wholly owned by its Member Clubs who make up the League at any one time. Each club is a shareholder, with one vote each on issues such as rule changes and contracts. The newly formed PFL would have commercial independence from The CFA, giving the PFL licence to negotiate its own broadcast and sponsorship agreements.

The CFA will no longer hold any shares of the League, but as national governing body for football in China the CFA is responsible for sanctioning competition Rule Books, and regulating on-field matters. It also organises The CFA Cup competition, in which PFL Member Clubs compete and the lower division leagues ranked after CL2, under specific agreement between CFA and PFL. The CFA also has the ability to exercise a vote on certain specific issues, but has no role in the day-to-day running of the CSL, CL1 and CL2.

On January 3, 2017, the CFA announced that Chinese Professional Football League, formed as a limited company, will be established in March 2017, the CSL and CL1 clubs will be found members of the PFL starts from 2017, with CL2 planning to join the system by 2019. The PFL preparatory committee will discuss and establish the regulations and the structures of the PFL, holding the elections of the PFL president in January and February 2017. However, after a series of meetings includes CFA officers and club owners, the plan had been put on hold.

Clubs


Chinese Super League seasons and champions

Season Champions Runners-up
2004 Shenzhen Jianlibao Shandong Luneng
2005 Dalian Shide Shanghai Shenhua
2006 Shandong Luneng Shanghai Shenhua
2007 Changchun Yatai Beijing Guoan
2008 Shandong Luneng Shanghai Shenhua
2009 Beijing Guoan Changchun Yatai
2010 Shandong Luneng Tianjin TEDA
2011 Guangzhou Evergrande Beijing Guoan
2012 Guangzhou Evergrande Jiangsu Sainty
2013 Guangzhou Evergrande Shandong Luneng
2014 Guangzhou Evergrande Beijing Guoan
2015 Guangzhou Evergrande Shanghai SIPG
2016 Guangzhou Evergrande Jiangsu Suning
2017 Guangzhou Evergrande Shanghai SIPG
2018 Shanghai SIPG Guangzhou Evergrande
2019 Guangzhou Evergrande Beijing Guoan
2020 Jiangsu Suning Guangzhou Evergrande

Performances in Chinese Super League

ClubTitlesRunners-upWinning seasonsRunner-up seasons
Guangzhou
8
2
2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019 2018, 2020
Shandong Taishan
3
2
2006, 2008, 2010 2004, 2013
Beijing Guoan
1
4
2009 2007, 2011, 2014, 2019
Shanghai Port
1
2
2018 2015, 2017
Jiangsu
1
2
2020 2012, 2016
Changchun Yatai
1
1
2007 2009
Shenzhen
1
0
2004
Dalian Shide
1
0
2005
Shanghai Shenhua
0
3
2005, 2006, 2008
Tianjin Jinmen Tiger
0
1
2010
Total1717

Current clubs

Club Chinese name Owners Home stadium Capacity Seasons in CSL Best finish Worst finish Spell in level 1
Beijing Guoan 北京国安 Sinobo Group (64%); CITIC Group (36%) Workers' Stadium 66,000 2004 to 2021 1st, 2009 9th, 2017 from 2004
Cangzhou Mighty Lions 沧州雄狮 Everbright Group Cangzhou Stadium 31,836 2015 to 2016, 2020 to 2021 7th, 2015 16th, 2016, 2020 from 2020
Changchun Yatai 长春亚泰 Changchun Jiarun Investment (100%) Changchun Stadium 38,500 2006 to 2018, 2021 1st, 2007 15th, 2018 from 2021
Chongqing Liangjiang Athletic 重庆两江竞技 Desports (90%); Lifan Group (10%) Chongqing Olympic Sports Center 58,600 2004 to 2006, 2009 to 2010, 2015 to 2021 6th, 2020 16th, 2009 from 2015
Dalian Pro 大连人 Dalian Wanda Group Dalian Sports Centre Stadium 61,000 2012 to 2014, 2018 to 2021 5th, 2012, 2013 15th, 2014 from 2018
Guangzhou 广州 Evergrande Group (60%); Alibaba Group (40%) Tianhe Stadium 58,500 2008 to 2009, 2011 to 2021 1st, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019 9th, 2009 from 2011
Guangzhou City 广州城 Guangzhou R&F Properties Co., Ltd. Yuexiushan Stadium 18,000 2004 to 2010, 2012 to 2021 3rd, 2014 16th, 2010 from 2012
Hebei 河北 China Fortune Land Development Co., Ltd Langfang Stadium 30,040 2016 to 2021 4th, 2017 11th, 2019 from 2016
Henan Songshan Longmen 河南嵩山龙门 Henan Haolin Investment (95.7%) Zhengzhou Hanghai Stadium 29,800 2007 to 2012, 2014 to 2021 3rd, 2009 16th, 2012 from 2014
Qingdao 青岛 Shenzhen Hengye Investment Group Co., ltd. (63.625%); Qingdao Huanghai Health Industry Group Co., ltd. (27%); Others (9.375%) Conson Stadium 45,000 2020 to 2021 14th, 2020 14th, 2020 from 2020
Shandong Taishan 山东泰山 State Grid Corporation of China Jinan Olympic Sports Luneng Stadium 56,800 2004 to 2021 1st, 2006, 2008, 2010 14th, 2016 from 2004
Shanghai Shenhua 上海申花 Greenland Group Hongkou Football Stadium 33,060 2004 to 2021 2nd, 2005, 2006, 2008 13th, 2019 from 2004
Shanghai Port 上海海港 Shanghai International Port Group Pudong Football Stadium 33,765 2013 to 2021 1st, 2018 9th, 2013 from 2013
Shenzhen 深圳 Kaisa Group Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre 60,334 2004 to 2011, 2019 to 2021 1st, 2004 16th, 2011 from 2019
Tianjin Jinmen Tiger 天津津门虎 TEDA Investment Holding Co., Ltd. (85.4%) Tianjin Olympic Center 54,696 2004 to 2021 2nd, 2010 14th, 2018 from 2004
Wuhan 武汉 Wuhan Zall Development Holding Co. Ltd Wuhan Five Rings Sports Center 30,000 2013, 2019 to 2021 6th, 2019 16th, 2013 from 2019

Former clubs

Club Chinese name Seasons in CSL Best finish Worst finish Current league
Guizhou 贵州 2017 to 2018 8th, 2017 16th, 2018 China League One
Zhejiang Pro 浙江职业 2007 to 2016 4th, 2010 15th, 2009, 2016 China League One
Shaoxing Keqiao Yuejia 绍兴柯桥越甲 2014 16th, 2014 China League Two
Qingdao Manatee 青岛海牛 2004 to 2013 6th, 2011 15th, 2013 China League Two
Jiangsu 江苏苏宁 2009 to 2020 1st, 2020 13th, 2013 Defunct
Beijing Renhe 北京人和 2004 to 2015, 2018 to 2019 3rd, 2004 16th, 2019 Defunct
Tianjin Tianhai 天津天海 2017 to 2019 3rd, 2017 14th, 2019 Defunct
Liaoning 辽宁宏运 2004 to 2008, 2010 to 2017 3rd, 2011 16th, 2017 Defunct
Yanbian Funde 延边富德 2016 to 2017 9th, 2016 15th, 2017 Defunct
Shanghai Shenxin 上海申鑫 2010 to 2015 7th, 2013 16th, 2015 Defunct
Dalian Shide 大连实德 2004 to 2012 1st, 2005 14th, 2008, 2012 Defunct
Chengdu Tiancheng 成都天诚 2008 to 2009, 2011 9th, 2009 15th, 2011 Defunct
Wuhan Optics Valley 武汉光谷 2005 to 2008 5th, 2005 16th, 2008 Defunct
Xiamen Blue Lions 厦门蓝狮 2006 to 2007 8th, 2006 15th, 2007 Defunct
Shanghai United 上海联城 2005 to 2006 7th, 2006 11th, 2005 Defunct
Sichuan Guancheng 四川冠城 2004 to 2005 9th, 2004, 2005 Defunct

All-time CSL table

The All-time CSL table is an overall record of all match results, points, and goals of every team that has played in CSL since its inception in 2004. The table is accurate as of the end of the 2019 season.

Pos Team S GP W D L GF GA GD Pts 1st 2nd
1Shandong Taishan1646423112410981053427681732
2Beijing Guoan1646422812611071346125281014
3Guangzhou11330203715670332837568081
4Shanghai Shenhua16464177143144648603456683
5Tianjin Jinmen Tiger1646416714015760760076411
6Changchun Yatai13386142107137512508453311
7Guangzhou City15434138117179559653−94531
8Beijing Renhe14404124127153475528−53499
9Jiangsu11330122101107458398604672
10Liaoning13374106110158440566−126428
11Henan Songshan Longmen12358106107145371457−86425
12Shanghai Port7210113554241523917639412
13Dalian Shide9254967880332304283661
14Zhejiang Pro102988792119325392−67353
15Qingdao Manatee102848287115303361−58333
16Chongqing Liangjiang Athletic102866784135306457−151285
17Shenzhen92546379112258364−1062681
18Dalian Pro5150484359204242−38187
19Shanghai Shenxin6180464391176265−89181
20Hebei4120452946172181-9164
21Tianjin Tianhai390283131127134-7115
22Wuhan Optics Valley411230235991189−98113
23Chengdu Tiancheng39023293889123−3498
24Cangzhou Mighty Lions2601524216284−2269
25Guizhou2601993273111−3866
26Shanghai United2541419215060−1061
27Wuhan2601515306599−3460
28Yanbian Funde26015143171105−3459
29Xiamen Blue Lions2561319245073−2358
30Sichuan Guancheng2481216205782−2552
31Shaoxing Keqiao Yuejia13056193556−2121
32Qingdao---------
Total163,3742,2081852
[nb 1]
2,2089,1648,47616
2020 Chinese Super League
2020 China League One
2020 China League Two
2020 Chinese Champions League
Clubs that no longer exist

Rivalries

There are several key rivalries and local derbies that have formed in the Chinese Super League, including:

"Shanghai Derbies"

"Guangzhou Derbies"

"Dalian Derbies"

"Tianjin Derbies"

"Beijing Derbies"

Players


Player salaries and transfers

Professional footballers in China receive relatively high salaries when compared to other Chinese sports leagues and football leagues in other countries. The average salary for CSL players is $1,016,579 in 2017,[10] it is ranked at eleventh place among all of the professional sports leagues and the sixth-highest of any professional association football league in the world.

CSL has two transfer windows—the primary pre-season transfer window lasts two months from January to February, and the secondary mid season transfer window runs one month from mid June to mid July. As of the 2018 season, the CSL introduced new rules mandating that each club must register a maximum 31-man squad, with 27 Chinese Players, including a player from Hong Kong, Macau and Chinese Taipei, and 4 foreign players. In the transfer window clubs could sign 5 Chinese players at any age, plus 3 under 21 Chinese players; clubs could register 4 foreign players in the winter transfer, and replace two of them in the summer transfer.[11]

The record transfer fee for a CSL player has risen rapidly since the investment boost started in 2015. The six most expensive transfers with players coming to CSL have exceeded €30 million, with Chelsea selling Oscar to Shanghai SIPG in December 2016 for a fee of €60 million,[12] Zenit Saint Petersburg selling Hulk to Shanghai SIPG for €55.8 million in July 2016, Shakhtar Donetsk selling Alex Teixeira to Jiangsu Suning for €50 million in February 2016, Atlético Madrid selling Jackson Martínez to Guangzhou Evergrande for €42 million in February 2016, Villarreal selling Cédric Bakambu to Beijing Guoan for €40 million in February 2018, Atlético Madrid selling Yannick Carrasco to Dalian Yifang for €30 million in February 2018. Guangzhou Evergrande's sale of Paulinho to Barcelona for €40 million in 2017 broke the record for a CSL player transfer to other leagues. Transfer fees for domestic players also increased dramatically. Beijing Guoan sold Chinese International Zhang Chengdong to Hebei China Fortune for ¥150 million in January 2017, breaking the domestic transfer record for Chinese players.

The Chinese Football Association introduced a new transfer tax to restrict transfer spending. On June 20, 2017, CFA announced that any club that pays more than ¥45 million for a foreign player transfer or ¥20 million for a Chinese player transfer must pay the same amount to a CFA youth development fund.[13]

In December 2020, the CFA imposed a salary cap on the Super League. Starting with the 2021 season, total player wages are capped at ¥600 million, with a separate limit of €10 million for foreign players. Individual player salaries are also capped, at ¥5 million before tax for Chinese players and €3 million for foreign players.[14]

Foreign Player policy

In early years numerous players from Eastern Europe, Africa and Latin America regions were signed as the foreign players in the Chinese league. Steadily, a lot of players transferred to China from major European and South American Leagues. The league has rules, at present, restricting the number of foreign players strictly to four per team. A team could use a maximum of three foreign players on the field each game. This is to promote native player improvement and to conform to rules regarding international club competitions in the AFC. Between 2009 and 2017, there was an additional slot for a player from AFC countries. During the middle of the 2012 season, it was decided that teams that were competing in the AFC Champions League were allowed to have two extra foreign players, which can bring the number of foreigners on a team's seven; however, the policy was removed in the 2013 season.

SeasonSquadMatchOn-fieldNote
1994–2000333
2001–2003443 From 2001, foreign goalkeepers were restricted to play in matches.
2004–2006332
2007–2008443
2009–20164+14+13+1 "+1" refers to the AFC quota. Teams may add a player from another country within the AFC; examples include Bhutan, Maldives, and Nepal.
20174+133Teams can use three foreign players at most in a match.[15]
2018–2019.7433Teams can use three foreign players at most in a match. The number of foreign players on-field in one match must be no more than the number of U-23 domestic players.[16]
2019.7–2019.12443
2020–554

Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwanese players

Policy for Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwanese players has changed continually. Players from Hong Kong Football Association were considered foreigners at the beginning of 2009, but the league held back the change until the summer transfer window. After the 2010 season, players from Macau Football Association and Chinese Taipei Football Association (except goalkeepers) were not considered foreigners in CSL matches, but will be regarded as foreigners in AFC competitions. In the 2015 season, players who had not played for the Hong Kong national football team, Macau national football team or the Chinese Taipei national football team were no longer deemed native players.[17] In the 2016 and 2017 season, players from the three associations whose contract was signed after 1 January 2016 were no longer deemed native players.[18] From the 2018 season, a club could register one non-naturalized player from the three associations as a native player.[19] According to the Chinese FA, a non-naturalized player refers to someone who was first registered as a professional footballer in the three football associations. Furthermore, Hong Kong or Macau players must be of Chinese descent of Hong Kong or Macau permanent resident, and Taiwanese players must be citizens of Taiwan.[20]

Top scorers and Appearances

As of 28 August 2019

Head coaches


In early years Chinese and Serbian coaches achieved success in the Chinese Super League. Just like the Jia-A period, the majority of foreign coaches were from countries like Serbia, Croatia and South Korea. Nowadays most CSL clubs appoint coaches from Western Europe and South America. Guangzhou Evergrande were the first side to spend big to bring in European and South American coaches. World Cup winning managers Marcello Lippi and Luiz Felipe Scolari had successful experiences at Guangzhou Evergrande. Famous coaches who have coached in China include Fabio Capello, Felix Magath, Manuel Pellegrini, Dan Petrescu, André Villas-Boas, Cuca, Sven-Göran Eriksson, Sergio Batista, Radomir Antić.

Winning head coaches
Head coach Club Wins Winning years
Marcello Lippi Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 3 2012, 2013, 2014
Luiz Felipe Scolari Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 2015, 2016, 2017
Ljubiša Tumbaković Shandong Luneng Taishan 2 2006, 2008
Zhu Guanghu Shenzhen Jianlibao 1 2004
Vladimir Petrović Pižon Dalian Shide 2005
Gao Hongbo Changchun Yatai 2007
Hong Yuanshuo Beijing Guoan 2009
Branko Ivanković Shandong Luneng Taishan 2010
Lee Jang-Soo Guangzhou Evergrande 2011
Vítor Pereira Shanghai SIPG 2018
Fabio Cannavaro Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 2019
Cosmin Olăroiu Jiangsu Suning 2020
Current head coaches
Nat. Name Club Appointed Time in charge
Jean-Paul van GastelGuangzhou City23 February 2021158 days
Wang BaoshanTianjin Teda19 August 2020346 days
Fabio CannavaroGuangzhou Evergrande Taobao9 November 20173 years, 264 days
Li XiaopengWuhan Zall27 December 2020216 days
Hao WeiShandong Luneng Taishan5 October 2020299 days
Ivan LekoShanghai Port1 January 2021211 days
Jordi CruyffShenzhen FC14 August 2020351 days
Xie FengHebei China Fortune10 May 20192 years, 67 days
Chang Woe-ryongChongqing Dangdai Lifan18 December 20191 year, 225 days
Javier PereiraHenan Jianye11 September 2020323 days
Choi Kang-heeShanghai Greenland Shenhua5 July 20192 years, 26 days
Wang BoBeijing Renhe11 December 20191 year, 232 days
VacantDalian Yifang
Slaven BilićBeijing Sinobo Guoan6 January 2021206 days
Chen YangChangchun Yatai5 October 2020299 days
Jordi VinyalsZhejiang Pro1 January 2021211 days
Most games managed
Rank Manager Games Club(s)
1 Ma Lin 245 Liaoning FC (2004, 2008, 2010–2013, 2015–2017); Chongqing Lifan (2005); Dalian Yifang (2014)
2 Shen Xiangfu 203 Beijing Guoan (2005–2006); Guangzhou Pharmaceutical (2008–2009); Changchun Yatai (2010–2011); Henan Jianye (2012); Shanghai Shenhua (2013–2014)
3 Ljubiša Tumbaković 178 Shandong Luneng Taishan (2004–2009); Wuhan Zall (2013)
4 Gao Hongbo 160 Xiamen Lanshi (2006); Changchun Yatai (2007–2008); Guizhou Renhe (2011–2012); Shanghai East Asia (2013); Jiangsu Sainty (2013–2015)
5 Jia Xiuquan 152 Henan Jianye (2008, 2014–2017); Shanghai Shenhua (2008–2009)
5 Tang Yaodong 152 Liaoning FC (2005–2007); Henan Jianye (2008–2010, 2014)
6 Chang Woe-Ryong 149 Qingdao Jonoon (2011, 2012–2013); Dalian Aerbin (2011); Chongqing Lifan (2016–2017); Henan Jianye (2018)
7 Lee Jang-Soo 148 Beijing Guoan (2006–2009); Guangzhou Evergrande (2011–2012); Changchun Yatai (2016–2017)
9 Arie Haan 137 Chongqing Lifan (2009); Tianjin Teda (2010–2011, 2014–2015)
10 Zhu Jiong 136 Shanghai Shenxin (2010–2013); Guizhou Renhe (2014–2015)
Statistics correct as of the end of the 2018 Chinese Super League

Attendance


The Chinese Super League has the highest average attendance of any football league in Asia. However, stadiums have capacity restrictions.

Season averages

SeasonTotal AttendanceGamesAverageChangeHigh avg.TeamNo. Of ClubsRelegation Slots
20041,430,60013210,838-63.4%23,636Shandong Luneng Taishan12-
20051,871,70018210,284-5.4%26,000Shandong Luneng Taishan14-
20062,228,30021010,611+3.2%30,679Shandong Luneng Taishan151
20073,173,50021015,112+42.4%24,643Shanxi Chanba151
20083,065,28022813,444-12.4%26,501Shandong Luneng Taishan162
20093,854,11524016,059+19.5%36,805Beijing Guoan162
20103,499,30424014,581-9.2%33,342Beijing Guoan162
20114,236,32224017,651+21.1%45,666Guangzhou Evergrande162
20124,497,57824018,740+6.2%37,250Guangzhou Evergrande162
20134,456,97724018,571-0.9%40,428Guangzhou Evergrande162
20144,556,52024018,986+2.2%42,154Guangzhou Evergrande162
20155,326,30424022,193+16.8%45,889Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao162
20165,798,13524024,159+8.8%44,883Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao162
20175,703,87124023,766−1.6%45,587Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao162
20185,785,76624024,107+1.4%47,002Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao162

Attendance by clubs

This table lists average attendances of clubs yearly, but only for seasons when that club played in the top division. Clubs are listed with their current names.

Team Crowd average
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Beijing Guoan 10,864 18,923 13,571 21,571 14,641 36,805 33,342 40,397 36,879 39,269 39,395 40,997 38,114 34,684 41,743
Beijing Renhe 8,455 4,385 17,286 24,643 24,625 23,026 28,053 27,836 29,574 21,312 12,327 15,139 12,534
Changchun Yatai 8,607 16,429 5,797 12,179 10,067 13,835 12,701 12,975 12,886 14,855 15,335 16,477 18,819
Chongqing Dangdai Lifan 15,727 5,731 6,536 11,440 11,433 37,595 36,178 34,439 32,434
Chengdu Blades 12,378 11,873 6,443
Dalian Yifang 15,774 10,538 10,993 33,145
Dalian Shide 11,273 14,000 5,043 10,286 7,900 16,613 12,307 17,148 11,093
Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 19,624 20,057 45,666 37,250 40,428 42,154 45,889 44,883 45,587 47,002
Guangzhou City 5,000 2,077 2,750 10,571 6,645 8,498 10,152 8,460 10,384 11,487 7,989 9,831 9,904 10,321
Guizhou Hengfeng 21,102 16,703
Hebei China Fortune 18,469 18,054 16,029
Henan Jianye 16,857 16,267 19,255 18,630 16,334 17,526 18,390 20,207 17,282 18,933 18,402
Jiangsu Suning 15,976 10,667 17,170 31,163 28,808 24,349 26,858 38,992 32,697 32,508
Liaoning Whowin 7,727 11,000 6,929 15,929 11,733 10,100 19,621 18,638 20,850 12,781 12,788 22,506 12,429
Qingdao Jonoon 4,645 4,500 6,071 7,179 6,600 8,774 6,247 8,464 9,538 8,284
Shandong Luneng Taishan 23,636 26,000 30,679 22,607 26,501 17,015 15,901 12,112 20,148 27,683 23,931 22,559 18,932 30,283 24,785
Shanghai Greenland Shenhua 13,636 12,462 12,786 11,393 11,510 12,627 12,963 9,828 14,761 12,739 15,417 19,506 22,690 19,021 21,480
Shanghai Shenxin 11,680 10,462 11,597 8,559 10,115 7,028
Shanghai SIPG 10,161 12,460 26,381 28,040 29,174 21,631
Shanghai United 4,885 2,193
Shenzhen F.C. 10,364 2,423 10,071 13,000 6,400 13,460 12,439 10,277
Shijiazhuang Ever Bright 25,070 22,523
Sichuan Guancheng 5,545 5,477
Tianjin Tianhai 24,877 19,695
Tianjin Teda 13,182 16,462 18,071 15,429 14,007 14,554 14,757 18,242 14,175 16,577 17,190 19,661 21,740 14,531 18,487
Wuhan Guanggu 15,654 10,500 13,179 12,556
Wuhan Zall 14,403
Xiamen Lanshi 8,071 8,036
Yanbian Funde 19,304 18,058
Zhejiang Greentown 19,571 12,188 14,790 14,550 8,586 10,563 14,164 13,766 12,566 11,723
Zhejiang Yiteng 26,126
Whole season 10,838 10,284 10,611 15,112 13,444 16,059 14,581 17,651 18,740 18,571 18,986 22,193 24,159 23,766 24,107

Individual game highest attendance records

Rank Home team Score Away team Attendance Stadium Date
1Jiangsu Sainty1–1Guangzhou Evergrande65,769Nanjing Olympic StadiumOctober 20, 2012
2Jiangsu Sainty1–2Guangzhou Evergrande58,792Nanjing Olympic StadiumJuly 14, 2013
3Beijing Sinobo Guo'an1–1Shandong Luneng Taishan56,544Worker's StadiumAugust 5, 2018
4Guangzhou Evergrande1–0Guangzhou R&F56,300Tianhe StadiumAugust 25, 2013
5Beijing Sinobo Guo'an2–2Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao56,211Worker's StadiumApril 22, 2018
6Beijing Guo'an4–0Hangzhou Greentown54,116Worker's StadiumOctober 31, 2009
7Beijing Sinobo Guo'an2–0Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao54,018Worker's StadiumJuly 10, 2017
8Beijing Sinobo Guo'an2–2Shandong Luneng Taishan53,906Worker's StadiumAugust 5, 2017
9Beijing Sinobo Guo'an4–0Beijing Renhe53,887Worker's StadiumMarch 31, 2018
10Beijing Guo'an0–2Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao53,526Worker's StadiumOctober 31, 2015

Awards


The official Chinese Super league annual awards are given to clubs, players, managers and referees based on their performance during the season.

Trophy

The Fire-god trophy is the official trophy award to CSL champions. The trophy was created by the Sculpture Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts and donated by the official partner of the Chinese Super League, Hengyuanxiang Group, in 2004. It consists of a pure gold trophy and a nephrite plinth base. The lower part of the trophy is the model of a Great Wall beacon tower; on the upper part, on top of the rising beacon, is a football wrapped by the earth, while the base has the engraved years and names of each Chinese Super League winner since 2004. The trophy weighs 5.548 kilograms (12.23 lb). The trophy and plinth are 52 cm (20 in) tall.

The trophy is not awarded to the winning club permanently. After the award ceremony they are awarded a replica, and they are allowed to retain the genuine trophy for one year.

Player of the Year

It is also named the "Most Valuable Player".

YearFootballerClubNationality
2004Zhao JunzheLiaoning Zhongyu China
2005Branko JelićBeijing Guoan Serbia
2006Zheng ZhiShandong Luneng Taishan China
2007Du ZhenyuChangchun Yatai
2008Emil MartínezShanghai Shenhua Honduras
2009Samuel CaballeroChangchun Yatai
2010Duvier RiascosShanghai Shenhua Colombia
2011MuriquiGuangzhou Evergrande Brazil
2012Cristian DănălacheJiangsu Sainty Romania
2013Darío ConcaGuangzhou Evergrande Argentina
2014Elkeson Brazil
2015Ricardo GoulartGuangzhou Evergrande Taobao
2016
2017Eran ZahaviGuangzhou R&F Israel
2018Wu LeiShanghai SIPG China
2019PaulinhoGuangzhou Evergrande Taobao Brazil

Golden Boot Award

This award is awarded to the top goalscorer of the league that year.

Year Top scorer Club Goals
2004 Kwame Ayew Inter Shanghai 17
2005 Branko Jelić Beijing Guoan 21
2006 Li Jinyu Shandong Luneng Taishan 26
2007 15
2008 Éber Luís Tianjin Teda 14
2009 Hernán Barcos
Luis Ramírez
Shenzhen Asia Travel / Shanghai Shenhua
Guangzhou GPC
17
2010 Duvier Riascos Shanghai Shenhua 20
2011 Muriqui Guangzhou Evergrande 16
2012 Cristian Dănălache Jiangsu Sainty 23
2013 Elkeson Guangzhou Evergrande 24
2014 28
2015 Aloísio Shandong Luneng Taishan 22
2016 Ricardo Goulart Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 19
2017 Eran Zahavi Guangzhou R&F 27
2018 Wu Lei Shanghai SIPG 27
2019 Eran Zahavi Guangzhou R&F 29

There is also an award that is awarded to the top Chinese goalscorer of that season, which was first introduced in 2011.

Year Top scorer Club Goals
2011 Yu Hanchao Liaoning FC 12
2012 Wang Yongpo Shandong Luneng Taishan 10
2013 Wu Lei Shanghai East Asia 15
2014 12
2015 Shanghai SIPG 14
2016 14
2017 20
2018 27
2019 Wei Shihao Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao 11

Manager of the Year

YearManagerClubStandingsNationality
2004Zhu GuanghuShenzhen JianlibaoChinese Super League champions China
2005Vladimir PetrovićDalian ShideChinese Super League champions; Chinese FA Cup winners Serbia
2006Ljubiša TumbakovićShandong Luneng TaishanChinese Super League champions; Chinese FA Cup winners Serbia
2007Gao HongboChangchun YataiChinese Super League champions China
2008Ljubiša TumbakovićShandong Luneng TaishanChinese Super League champions Serbia
2009Tang YaodongHenan JianyeChinese Super League third place China
2010Branko IvankovićShandong Luneng TaishanChinese Super League champions Croatia
2011Ma LinLiaoning WhowinChinese Super League third place China
2012Dragan OkukaJiangsu SaintyChinese Super League runners-up Serbia
2013Marcello LippiGuangzhou EvergrandeChinese Super League champions; AFC Champions League winners Italy
2014Gregorio ManzanoBeijing GuoanChinese Super League runners-up Spain
2015Luiz Felipe ScolariGuangzhou Evergrande TaobaoChinese Super League champions; AFC Champions League winners Brazil
2016Luiz Felipe ScolariGuangzhou Evergrande TaobaoChinese Super League champions; Chinese FA Cup winners Brazil
2017Fabio CannavaroTianjin QuanjianChinese Super League 3rd place Italy
2018Li XiaopengShandong Luneng TaishanChinese Super League 3rd place China
2019Li XiaopengShandong Luneng TaishanChinese Super League 3rd place China

Youth Player of the Year

YearFootballerClub
2004Chen TaoShenyang Ginde
2005Hao JunminTianjin Teda
2006Wang DaleiShanghai Liancheng
2007Hao JunminTianjin Teda
2008Huang BowenBeijing Guoan
2009Deng ZhuoxiangJiangsu Sainty
2010Zheng ZhengShandong Luneng Taishan
2011Song WenjieQingdao Jonoon
2012Zhang XizheBeijing Guoan
2013Jin JingdaoShandong Luneng Taishan
2014Liu BinbinShandong Luneng Taishan
2015Vacancy[21]
2016Li XiaomingHenan Jianye
2017Hu JinghangHenan Jianye
2018Huang ZichangJiangsu Suning
2019Zhu ChenjieShanghai Greenland Shenhua

There is also an award that is awarded to the U-23 player of the year, which was first introduced in 2017.

YearFootballerClub
2017Huang ZhengyuGuangzhou R&F

Goalkeeper of the Year

YearFootballerClub
2012Deng XiaofeiJiangsu Sainty
2013Zeng ChengGuangzhou Evergrande
2014Wang DaleiShandong Luneng Taishan
2015Zeng ChengGuangzhou Evergrande Taobao
2016
2017Yan JunlingShanghai SIPG
2018
2019

Sponsors


Title sponsor

The current official title sponsor of the Chinese Super League is Ping'an Insurance, under the second sponsor deal between CSL and Ping'an from 2018 through 2022.

Sponsorships
Season Sponsor Annual value Official league name
2004 Siemens Mobile €8 million Siemens Mobile Chinese Super League
2005 No sponsor Chinese Football Association Super League
2006 IPhox €6 million Iphox Chinese Super League
2007 Kingway Beer ¥36 million[22] Kingway Beer Chinese Super League
2008 ¥38 million Kingway Beer Chinese Super League
2009 Pirelli €5 million[23] Pirelli Chinese Super League
2010 €5 million Pirelli Chinese Super League
2011 Wanda Plaza ¥65 million[24] Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League
2012 ¥65 million Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League
2013 ¥65 million Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League
2014 Ping An Insurance ¥150 million[25] China Ping'an Chinese Super League
2015 ¥165 million China Ping'an Chinese Super League
2016 ¥181.5 million China Ping'an Chinese Super League
2017 ¥199.65 million China Ping'an Chinese Super League
2018 ¥200 million China Ping'an Chinese Super League

Partners and suppliers

As well as sponsorship for the league itself, the Chinese Super League has a number of official partners and suppliers. The official equipment supplier for the league is Nike who have had the contract since the 2005 season. According to data published by Imedia Culture Communication Co., Ltd, the sponsor value from official partners and suppliers of Chinese Super League reaches 600 million Yuan in 2017 season.[26]

The following table shows the partners and suppliers of the Chinese Super League. Bold denotes current sponsor.

Company Duration
Nike2020-2029
DHL2014–2020
Shell2014–2019
TAG Heuer2016–2019
Fengkuang.cn2017–2022
Tsingtao Laoshan Beer2017–2021
Absen LED2017–2020
ImagineChina2017–2019
Ganten2017–
Tmall2018–2022
SAIC Motor2018–2020
Eastroc Super Drink2018–2019
JD.com2010 2013–2017
Ford2014–2017
Red Bull2015–2017
Yanghe2017
Ledman Solar2011–2016
Carlsberg2013–2016
Samsung2013–2014
Huiyuan Juice2014
China Auto Rental2013
SDLG2011–2013
Harbin Beer2011–2012
Shinery Motor2009–2010
Frestech2010
Canon2004–2008
CP-Freda2004–2006
Hengyuanxiang2004–2006
Hyundai Motors2004–2005

Media coverage


China

The first broadcast rights holders of the rebranded Chinese Super League was the Shanghai Media Group (SMG), in September 2003 they signed the contract for 2004 to 2006 season.[27] The second SMG contract was signed in February 2007 for the five-year period from 2007 to 2011.[28]

CCTV acquired the CSL Television rights in 2012, and they held the rights until 2015 under annual contract,[29] CSL was broadcast in CCTV's public cable TV channel CCTV5 and CCTV5+. however, the Sateliite TV rights was sold to Cloud Media from 2014 to 2017.

Starting from the 2016 Season The Chinese Super League sold its television rights on a collective basis. However, it benefits CSL clubs almost equally according to CSL commercial contracts. The money is divided into three parts: 10% reserved for the Chinese football association and CSL company, which is paid out as facilities fees and management expenses, as to the remaining 90%, 81% of them is divided equally between the clubs; and 9% is awarded on a merit basis based on final league position.[30]

The current media rights holder is the China Sports Media Co., Ltd. (CSM, simplified Chinese: 体奥动力,pinyin: tǐ ào dòng lì ), CSM bought the rights for five seasons (2016–2020) for 8 billion yuan in October 2015. On January 24, 2018, The CSL and CSM reached an agreement to extend the original five-year contract to a 10-year one(2016–2025) and to raise the price to 11 billion yuan, about 1.73 billion dollars according to the exchange rate then prevailing.[31][32]

Worldwide

Outside of China, currently IMG holds the global media rights to the Chinese Super League. The first contract was signed in 2016 for two seasons,[33] and in 2018 IMG and CSM has sealed a three-year extension.[34] The CSL is now broadcasting in 96 countries across the world.[35]

2018-2020

-

Country/Region Network
 AustriaDACHDAZN
 GermanyDACH
 Italy
  SwitzerlandDACH
Balkan countries
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Croatia
* Montenegro
* North Macedonia
* Serbia
* Slovenia 
SportKlub
 AustraliaSports Flick
 BrazilESPN
 United States
 CanadaOneSoccer
Eurasia countries
* Armenia
* Azerbaijan
* Belarus
* Estonia
* Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
* Latvia
* Lithuania
* Moldova
* Tajikistan
* Turkmenistan
* Uzbekistan
Setanta Sports Eurasia
 GeorgiaSilknet
 IndonesiaMola TV
 Timor Leste
 Ireland Premier-Free Sports
 United Kingdom
 Israel Sport 1
 Macau TDM
 PhilippinesTap Sports
 PolandPolsat Sport
 PortugalSport TV
 SingaporeSingtel
 TurkeyS Sport
Sub-Saharan Africa
* Nigeria
* South Africa
* Kenya
* Ghana
StarTimes

^DACH - other matches also available on Sportdigital

Reserve league and Elite league


In early years the reserve league was open to all of the reserve teams from the Chinese Super League, China League One, and China League Two clubs. In 2011, the lower leagues started their own reserve league. The CSL reserve league strictly allows CSL clubs to compete, it is played at the next day of the regular league, also in home and away format, since 2018, the reserve league is held in the same venue of the regular league.

From 2014 to 2017, an elite league was held under the reserve league, restricted to players between 17 and 19 years old.

Season Reserve Champions Elite Champions
2004 Shanghai Shenhua Not Held
2005 Not Held Not Held
2006 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2007 Tianjin Teda Not Held
2008 Wuhan Guanggu Not Held
2009 Not Held Not Held
2010 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2011 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2012 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2013 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2014 Shandong Luneng Taishan Shanghai Shenhua
2015 Shandong Luneng Taishan Hangzhou Greentown
2016 Shanghai SIPG Jiangsu Suning
2017 Shandong Luneng Taishan Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao
2018 Jiangsu Suning Not Held
2019 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held
2020 Not Held Not Held

Youth development and Youth super league


Since the inception of the CSL, the CFA has required all of its clubs to operate youth development, yet it was not a strict criteria until 2018. In the CSL club criteria created in 2017, clubs who could not meet the youth development programme criteria will be relegated to lower leagues.

According to the CSL club criteria, the youth teams of CSL clubs must have their own training center, coaching staff, and medical group, and a minimum of 15% of club budgets must be invested into youth programmes. CSL clubs are required to have 5 youth level teams at ages U19, U17, U15, U14 and U13. Clubs must have youth academies and introduce grassroots football plans to cooperate with local football associations, school and social corporations.

In 2017 the Youth League system was officially rebranded as Youth Super League. YSL is open to all the youth teams of all professional clubs, selected football academies and local FA training teams in China. Since 2018 the U19 Youth Super league is played with two groups of 18, a total of 36 clubs. Clubs plays home and away season with promotion and relegation introduced. The U17 and U15 Youth Super Leagues play in six regional leagues with 76 and 77 teams respectively. The U14 and U13 Youth Super leagues play in five regional leagues with 40 and 45 teams respectively.[36]

Besides the Youth Super League, there are also other tournaments for youth teams across China, including Youth Championship plays in pre-season, Youth FA cup runs during the Youth Super League fixture, and Youth Champions Cup plays in off-season.

Season U-19/19A Champions U-19B Champions U-19C Champions U-18 Champions U-17 Champions U-16 Champions U-15 Champions U-14 Champions U-13 Champions
2004[37] Shanghai Shenhua Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2005 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2006 Beijing Guoan Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2007 Chongqing Lifan Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2008 Beijing Guoan Not Held Not Held Not Held Changchun Yatai Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2009 Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held Not Held Changchun Yatai Not Held Wuhan FA Not Held Not Held
2010 Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shanghai Luckystar Not Held Not Held
2011[38] Beijing Guoan Not Held Not Held Not Held Shanghai FA Not Held Hubei FA Not Held Shanghai Genbao
2012[39] Jiangsu FA Not Held Not Held Not Held Liaoning FA Not Held Guangzhou FA Not Held Shanghai Genbao
2013 Henan Jianye Not Held Not Held Not Held Jiangsu FA Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Not Held
2014 Shanghai Shenhua Not Held Not Held Not Held Guangzhou R&F Not Held Henan Jianye Shanghai Genbao Not Held
2015 Not Held Not Held Not Held Guangdong FA Not Held Jiangsu FA Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan
2016 Shaanxi FA Not Held Not Held Not Held Jiangsu FA Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Shandong Luneng Taishan Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao
2017[40] Not Held Not Held Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Shandong Luneng Taishan Changchun Yatai Shandong Luneng Taishan
2018 Shanghai SIPG Evergrande Football School Not Held Not Held Shanghai Greenland Shenhua Not Held Hubei FA Shandong Luneng Taishan Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao
2019 Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao Shanghai Greenland Shenhua Fujian FA Not Held Shandong Luneng Taishan Not Held Shandong FA Shandong FA Shandong FA
2020 Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held Not Held

See also


Notes


  1. 1852 games ended up with a draw, resulting up with 3,704 points

References


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