Church Slavonic

Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ, literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic,[1] New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia. The language appears also in the services of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese, and occasionally in the services of the Orthodox Church in America.

Church Slavonic
Church Slavic
Црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ
Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic
RegionEastern Europe and Balkans
Native speakers
Early form
Glagolitic (Glag), Cyrillic (Cyrs)
Language codes
ISO 639-1cu
ISO 639-2chu
ISO 639-3chu (includes Old Church Slavonic)
Glottologchur1257  Church Slavic
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In addition, Church Slavonic is used by some churches which consider themselves Orthodox but are not in communion with the Orthodox Church, such as the Macedonian Orthodox Church, the Montenegrin Orthodox Church, the Russian True Orthodox Church, and others. The Russian Old Believers and the Co-Believers also use Church Slavonic.

Church Slavonic is also used by Greek Catholic Churches in Slavic countries, for example the Croatian, Slovak and Ruthenian Greek Catholics, as well as by the Roman Catholic Church (Croatian and Czech recensions).

In the past, Church Slavonic was also used by the Orthodox Churches in the Romanian lands until the late 17th and early 18th centuries,[2] as well as by Roman Catholic Croats in the Early Middle Ages.