Circassia

Circassia (/sɜːrˈkæʃə/; Adyghe: Адыгэ Хэку, Адыгей, romanized: Adıgə Xəku, Adıgey; Russian: Черкесия; Turkish: Çerkesya) was a country and historical region in the North Caucasus along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.[6][7] It was destroyed and devastated after the Russian-Circassian war (1763–1864) as 90% of the Circassian people were either massacred or exiled from the region in the Circassian genocide.[8][9][10][11][12]

Circassia
Адыгэ Хэку - Adıgə Xəku
Адыгей - Adıgey
Established as centralised state in:
c.1427–1453 (Grand Principality of Circassia)
1861–1864 (Confederate Republic of Circassia)
Coat of arms
Motto: 
Псэм ипэ напэ
Psəm yipə napə
"Honor before life"
Circassia
Circassia in 1450 during the reign of Inal the Great
CapitalŞ̂açə (modern-day Sochi)
43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E
Administrative centerAdyghe Xase
Common languagesCircassian languages, Abazin language
Religion
Xabze philosophy and Circassian paganism
Orthodox Christianity (6th century-1717)
Islam (1717–1864)
Demonym(s)Circassian (English)
Çerkes (Turkish)
Cherkess (Russian)
Tscherkess (German)
GovernmentFeudal kingdom; reestablished as a Confederate Republic
 Prince of Western Circassia
c.100s
c.1000s
c.1200s
c.1300s
c.1470s
1810–1840
1853–1860

List:
Stachemfak
Rededya
Tukar
Verzacht
Petrezok
Kizbech Tuguzhuqo
Sefer Bey Zanuqo
 King of all Circassia
c.1427–1453

List:
Inal the Great
 Prince of Eastern Circassia
1453–c.1490
c.1490c.1500
c.1500c.1525
c.1525c.1540
c.1540–1554
1554–1571
1571–1578
1578–1589
1589–1609
1609–1616
1616–1624
1624–1654
1654–1672
1672–1695
1695–1721
1721–1732
1732–1737
1737–1746
1746–1749
1749–1762
1762–1773
1773–1785
1785–1788
1788–1809
1809
1810–1822

List:
Tabulda
Inarmas
Beslan
Idar
Kaytuk I
Temruk
Shiapshuk
Kambulat
Kaytuk II
Sholokh
Kudenet
Aleguko
Atajuq I
Misost
Atajuq II Kurgoqo
Islambek
Tatarkhan
Aslanbek
Batoko
Bamat Muhammad
Kasay
Jankhot
Misost II
Atajuq III
Atajuq IV
Jankhot II Qushuq
Confederation Leaders 
Parliamentary Chairman 
 1861–1864
Qerandiqo Berzeg
History 
 Established
Established as centralised state in:
c.1427–1453 (Grand Principality of Circassia)
1861–1864 (Confederate Republic of Circassia)
1763–1864
Area
 Total
82,000 km2 (32,000 sq mi)
Population
 Estimate
1.625.000 (pre-Circassian genocide)
86.655 (post-Circassian genocide)[1][2][3][4][5]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Zichia
Kabardia
Golden Horde
Russian Empire
Today part of

The Circassians also dominated the north of the Kuban river in the early medieval and ancient times, but with the raids of the Mongol Empire, Golden Horde and the Crimean Khanate, they were withdrawn south of the Kuban, from the Taman Peninsula to North Ossetia. During the Medieval Era, Circassian lords subjugated and vassalized the neighboring Karachay-Balkars and Ossetians.[13] The term Circassia is also used as the collective name of Circassian states established on Circassian territory.

Although Circassia is the original homeland of the Circassian people, today most Circassians live in exile.[14][15][16][17]