Cities of London and Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)
Cities of London and Westminster is a constituency returning a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons in the United Kingdom Parliament. It is a borough constituency for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer. As with all constituencies, the election is decided using the first past the post system of election. Since its creation at the 1950 general election, the constituency has, thus far, always elected the candidate nominated by the Conservative Party.
|Cities of London and Westminster|
for the House of Commons
|Population||110,000 (2011 census)|
|Electorate||65,140 (December 2010)|
|Major settlements||City of London, Westminster|
|Member of Parliament||Nickie Aiken (Conservative)|
|Number of members||One|
|Created from||City of London (1298–1950), Westminster Abbey, Westminster St George's|
Before 1950 the City of London formed a two-member constituency on its own. The Boundary Commission for England began reviewing constituencies in January 1946 using rules defined under the Representation of the People Act 1944, which excluded the City of London from the redistribution procedure; the Commission recommended that the borough of Chelsea and the City of Westminster form a single Parliamentary Borough of Chelsea and Westminster with two divisions.
In February 1948 the Government brought forward a new Representation of the People Bill which removed the right of owners of business premises to a second vote; this would have had the effect of reducing the electorate of the City of London from 12,500 to 4,600. The Bill proposed also to end the City of London as a separate constituency and to merge it with the adjacent boroughs of Finsbury and Shoreditch. During debates on the Bill, the Government amended it to substitute a link between the City of London and the City of Westminster. In introducing the amendment the Home Secretary James Chuter Ede noted that the alterations to the constituencies in Westminster, Chelsea and Kensington had been agreed unanimously at a conference between the Members of Parliament and representatives of the boroughs affected.
These changes came into force from the 1950 election.
No alteration was made by the First Periodical Report on constituency boundaries in 1954. In the Second Periodical Report in 1969, the Boundary Commission wrote that their initial feelings were that "except for a minor alteration to follow a new ward boundary" they felt that there was "no reason to disturb" the constituency, and they received no objections to this proposal. Westminster City Council later suggested that the constituency could be more accurately named as 'The City of London and Westminster South'; the Boundary Commission found opinion divided and left the name unchanged when it published revised proposals for two other constituencies within the City. Subsequent representations on the name were received and the Commission decided that, although justified on historical grounds, the name was "not now entirely accurate" and so proposed the renaming as suggested by the City Council.
In initial proposals during the Third Periodical Review (1983), the Boundary Commission proposed to abolish the St Marylebone constituency and add four wards from it (Cavendish, Baker Street, Bryanston and Regents Park) to the previous City of London and Westminster South constituency; they provisionally named the result 'The City of London and Westminster'. After a local inquiry, the Regents Park ward was removed and Hyde Park ward (from the Paddington constituency) was added; unanimous opinion at the inquiry favoured naming the result 'The City of London and Westminster South'.
For the Fourth Periodical Review (1995), the Boundary Commission paired the City of Westminster with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea for consideration. The Commission's initial proposals, to expand the constituency by two wards (Bayswater and Lancaster Gate) formerly in Westminster North and to return to the name 'Cities of London and Westminster', were upheld after a local inquiry, despite multiple counter-proposals.
At the Fifth Periodical Review (in 2007), the initial proposals of the Boundary Commission paired the City of Westminster with the London Borough of Brent although they involved only minor changes to the Cities of London and Westminster constituency to take account of new ward boundaries. Widespread objections ("almost universal hostility") to the pairing led to a local inquiry, which decided that Westminster and the City of London should be reviewed separately and not paired with any other borough. The Commission proposed a new Cities of London and Westminster constituency in which the revised Bayswater and Lancaster Gate wards were removed.
Early proposals made during the initial stages of the postponed Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies proposed linking the City of London to the southern wards of Islington in a constituency to be known as "The City of London and Islington South". Most of the Westminster wards were proposed to form part of a Westminster and Kensington constituency. This proposal was the first to suggest a split between the two Cities in Parliamentary elections since they were joined and proved unpopular in consultation; the Boundary Commission revised them to return the link between the City of London and the City of Westminster, although the review was subsequently placed on hiatus.
In 2016 the Boundary Commission produced a second attempt at the Sixth Periodic Review. Its proposed Cities of London and Westminster comprises the City attached to Regent's Park and Abbey Road to the north-west, Knightsbridge/Belgravia to the west, and Holborn/Covent Garden to the north.
London Assembly constituency
Although united for Parliamentary elections, in the London Assembly, the City of London is covered by the City and East constituency, and the area in Westminster by the West Central constituency. The Local Government Commission for England argued that "combining the City of London with areas to its east could assist in focussing regeneration eastwards" and linked it with the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, the London Borough of Newham, and the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham.
1950–1974: From the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster: Charing Cross, Covent Garden, Great Marlborough Conduit, Grosvenor, Hamlet of Knightsbridge, Knightsbridge St. George, Pall Mall, Regent, St. Anne, St. John, St. Margaret, Strand.
In 1959, the boundaries changed, and the wards used instead were Abbey, Alderney, Aldwych, Berkeley, Cathedral, Churchill, Covent Garden, Dolphin, Eaton, Ebury, Grosvenor, Knightsbridge, Millbank, Regent Street, St. James's, Soho, Tachbrook, Victoria, Warwick and Wilton. In 1964, the City of Westminster was created to replace the old Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which kept the same wards.
The City of London consisted of Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bassishaw, Bassishaw, Billingsgate, Bishopsgate, Bread Street, Bridge Within, Bridge Without, Broad Street, Candlewick, Castle Baynard, Cheap, Coleman Street, Cordwainer, Cornhill, Cripplegate, Dowgate, Farringdon Within, Farringdon Without, Langbourn, Lime Street, Portsoken, Queenhithe, Tower, Vintry and Walbrook.
In 1968, the City of Westminster ward boundaries changed, with the following used for this seat: Charing Cross, Churchill, Knightsbridge, Millbank, Regent Street, Victoria Street and Warwick.
1974–1983: The City of Westminster wards as above, and the City of London, as above.
New boundaries from 1978 meant the following wards from the City of Westminster were used: Baker Street, Belgrave, Bryanston, Cavendish, Churchill, Hyde Park, Knightsbridge, Millbank, St George's, St James's, Victoria, and West End.
In the City of London, Bridge Within and Bridge Without were combined in 1978 to create Bridge.
1983–1997: The City of Westminster wards as above, and the City of London as above.
1997–2010: The City of Westminster wards as above, plus, Bayswater and Lancaster Gate, and the City of London as above.
In 2002, a Local Government Boundary Commission for England review abolished the Baker Street, Belgrave, Bryanston, Cavendish, Knightsbridge, Millbank, St James's and Victoria wards.
For the 2005 general election, the Westminster electoral wards used in this constituency were Bayswater (part), Bryanston and Dorset Square (part), Churchill, Hyde Park, Knightsbridge and Belgravia, Lancaster Gate, Marylebone High Street, St James's, Tachbrook, Vincent Square, Warwick and West End.
2010–present: The City of Westminster wards of Bryanston and Dorset Square, Churchill, Hyde Park, Knightsbridge and Belgravia, Marylebone High Street, St James's, Tachbrook, Vincent Square, Warwick, and West End, and the City of London wards, as above.
The seat covers the entire City of London and most of the City of Westminster lying South of the Marylebone Road and the Westway. In the latter, more residential, city it covers Westminster, Pimlico, Victoria, Belgravia, Knightsbridge, St. James's, Soho, most of Covent Garden, alongside parts of Fitzrovia, Marylebone, Edgware Road, Paddington and Bayswater.
The Cities of London and Westminster seat contains the two historical centres of the capital. The City of London is an international financial centre - while Westminster, home to the Houses of Parliament, Whitehall and Downing Street, represents Britain's political centre.
The seat includes iconic landmarks such as Buckingham Palace and St Paul's Cathedral, the West End's Theatreland and Soho. Some of the country's wealthiest residents live in exclusive Mayfair, Belgravia and Knightsbridge. Less than half the population was born in the UK - a fifth hail from Europe, while one in twenty is American, according to the 2011 Census.
The Westminster City Council wards are heavily represented by the Conservatives; in the most recent elections in 2018 the Labour Party won two seats in the Churchill ward in the constituency, and one in West End ward.
The constituency also incorporates the City of London Corporation. This includes some of the lowest populated wards in the United Kingdom, such as the Coleman Street ward which has a total electorate of 2 and the Aldgate ward which has a total electorate of 27.
Members of Parliament
Named Cities of London and Westminster from 1997 to date
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrats||Chuka Umunna||13,096||30.7||19.6|
|Liberal||Dirk van Heck||101||0.2||New|
|Liberal Democrats||Bridget Fox||4,270||11.1||4.1|
|One Love||Ankit Love The Maharaja of Kashmir||59||0.2||New|
|Young People's||Benjamin Weenen||43||0.1||New|
|Liberal Democrats||Belinda Brooks-Gordon||2,521||7.0||-13.5|
|Class War||Adam Clifford||59||0.2||New|
|Liberal Democrats||Naomi Smith||7,574||20.5||+2.0|
|English Democrat||Frank Roseman||191||0.5||New|
|Independent||Mad Cap'n Tom||84||0.2||New|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrats||Marie-Louise Rossi||7,306||20.0||+4.6|
|Liberal Democrats||Martin Horwood||5,218||15.4||+3.1|
Elections in the 1990s
|Liberal Democrats||Michael Dumigan||4,933||12.3||–1.8|
|Natural Law||Richard Johnson||176||0.4||+0.1|
|Monster Raving Loony||Nicholas Walsh||138||0.3||-0.1|
|Hemp Coalition||Gordon Webster||112||0.3||New|
|Rainbow Dream Ticket||Jerry Sadowitz||73||0.2||New|
|Conservative win (new seat)|
Named City of London and Westminster South between 1974 and 1997
|Liberal Democrats||Jane Smithard||5,392||15.3||–6.5|
|Monster Raving Loony||Peter Stockton||147||0.4||New|
|Irish Freedom Movement||Alex Farrell||107||0.3||New|
|Natural Law||Richard Johnson||101||0.3||New|
Elections in the 1980s
|National Front||Anthony Reeve||258||0.7||-1.0|
|Communist||A. W. Spence||161||0.5||New|
|Independent - Pro Nuclear War Gay Rights||Victor Litvin||147||0.4||New|
Elections in the 1970s
|National Front||K. Mathews||478||1.7||-0.8|
1979 figure changes based on the October 1974 election, not the 1977 by-election.
|National Front||Paul Kavanagh||1,051||5.19||+2.72|
|Pro-Homosexual Civil Rights||Peter Mitchel||449||2.22||New|
|National Party||Michael Lobb||364||1.80||New|
|New Britain||Dennis Delderfield||306||1.51||New|
|Air, Road, Public Safety, White Resident||Bill Boaks||61||0.30||New|
|Christian Outreach to Britain, Anti-Pornography||William Thompson||43||0.21||New|
|Christ, Crown, Country, Commonwealth, Christian Constitution||Ralph Herbert||37||0.18||New|
|Liberal||T. G. Underwood||4,122||14.9||-4.0|
|National Front||D. Baxter||686||2.5||New|
|Liberal||T. G. Underwood||6,015||18.9||+10.5|
|Independent Conservative||C. D. Wertheim||134||0.4||New|
Named from 1950 to 1974 Cities of London and Westminster
|Independent - Anti-Labour||Willoughby Clark||157||0.5||New|
|Independent - Young Ideas||Lord Sutch||142||0.4||New|
Elections in the 1960s
|Liberal||John W Derry||4,087||11.05||+0.55|
Elections in the 1950s
|Labour||John Lewis Curthoys||14,849||28.0|
|Liberal||Jacob Arthur Gorsky||4,670||8.8|
|Conservative win (new seat)|
Notes and references
- constituency renamed 'City of London and Westminster South' in 1974
- constituency renamed 'Cities of London and Westminster' in 1997
- "Cities of London and Westminster: Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Electorate Figures". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Whether the City of London returned one or two members was left for the decision of Parliament.
- "Initial Report of the Boundary Commission for England", Cmd. 7260, p. 4.
- "Initial Report of the Boundary Commission for England", Cmd. 7260, p. 33.
- "Redistribution of Seats". The Times. 16 February 1948. p. 4.
- "Proposals For New Seats". The Times. 14 June 1948. p. 4.
- HC Debs 5ser vol 452 col 326.
- "Boundary Commission for England", First Periodical Report, Cmd. 9311, p. 25.
- "Boundary Commission for England", Second Periodical Report, Cmnd. 4084, pp. 26-27.
- "Boundary Commission for England", Third Periodical Report, Cmnd. 8797-I, pp. 37–8.
- "Boundary Commission for England", Fourth Periodical Report, HC 433-i of session 1994-95, pp. 38-45.
- "Boundary Commission for England", Fifth Periodical Report, Cm 7032-I, pp. 42–51.
- Brannen, Aimee (13 September 2011). "Islington parliamentary boundaries could change". Islington Gazette.
- Eysenck, Juliet (13 September 2011). "Boundary changes to affect Westminster". Westminster Chronicle.
- White, Isobel; Johnston, Neil (4 February 2013). "Constituency boundaries: the Sixth General Review in England" (PDF). House of Commons Library. p. 13.
- Cities of London and Westminster - Revised Proposal Boundary Commission for England
- "Draft Recommendations: Electoral Areas for the Assembly of the Greater London Authority" (PDF). Local Government Commission for England. August 1998. paragraph 73.[permanent dead link]
- Boothroyd, David (n.d.). "Westminster City Council Ward Maps". Westminster City Council Election Results. David Boothroyd. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- "North London Ward Breakdown". Electoral Calculus. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Seat Details". www.electoralcalculus.co.uk.
- "Cities of London and Westminster 1950-1974". Hansard 1803-2005. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "City of London and Westminster South 1974-1997". Hansard 1803-2005. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Cities of London and Westminster 1997-". Hansard 1803-2005. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" (part 4)
- "Cities of London & Westminster parliamentary constituency - Election 2019 - BBC News". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "<Election Title>" (PDF). Westminster City Council. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Baker, Carl; Hawkins, Oliver; Audickas, Lukas; Bate, Alex; Cracknell, Richard; Apostolova, Vyara; Dempsey, Noel; McInnes, Roderick; Rutherford, Tom; Uberoi, Elise (29 January 2019). General Election 2017: results and analysis (PDF) (Report). House of Commons Library. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "7 May 2015 - UK general election". Westminster City Council. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Tom Scott; Matt Gray (1 April 2016). The Ballad of Mad Cap'n Tom, Part 2 (Vlog). Matt and Tom. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "1977 By Election Results". Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "1965 By Election Results". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2015.