Climate fiction (sometimes shortened as cli-fi) is literature that deals with climate change and global warming. Not necessarily speculative in nature, works may take place in the world as we know it or in the near future. The genre frequently includes science fiction and dystopian or utopian themes, imagining the potential futures based on how humanity responds to the impacts of climate change. Technologies such as climate engineering or climate adaptation practices often feature prominently in works exploring their impacts on society. Climate fiction is distinct from petrofiction which deals directly with the petroleum culture and economy.
Although the term "climate fiction" only became used in the 2010s, climate change has been a topic of fiction since the 20th century, pioneered by authors such as J. G. Ballard and Octavia E. Butler. Prominent climate fiction authors include Margaret Atwood, Kim Stanley Robinson and Richard Powers.
University courses on literature and environmental issues may include climate change fiction in their syllabi. This body of literature has been discussed by a variety of publications, including The New York Times, The Guardian, and Dissent magazine, among other international media outlets. The role of fiction in communicating climate change has been the topic of study.