College and university rankings

College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education based on combinations of various factors. None of the rankings give a comprehensive overview of the strengths of the institutions because all select a range of quantifiable characteristics to base their results on. Rankings have been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, and academics. In addition to ranking entire institutions, organizations rank programs, departments, and schools. Rankings consider various combinations of measures of funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialization expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, internationalization, graduate employment, industrial linkage, historical reputation and other criteria. Various rankings mostly evaluating on institutional output by research. Some rankings evaluate institutions within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide. The subject has produced much debate about rankings' usefulness and accuracy.[1] The expanding diversity in rating methodologies and accompanying criticisms of each indicate the lack of consensus in the field. Further, it seems possible to game the ranking systems through excessive self-citations[2] or by researchers supporting each other in surveys. UNESCO has questioned whether rankings "do more harm than good", while acknowledging that "Rightly or wrongly, they are perceived as a measure of quality and so create intense competition between universities all over the world".[3]