Comboios de Portugal


CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates passenger trains in Portugal. Before June 2009, CP stood for Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (English: Portuguese Railways) although the company has been using its current designation as a brand name since 2004.

Comboios de Portugal
TypeIncorporation
IndustryRail transport
Founded1856
Headquarters,
Key people
Nuno Pinho da Cruz Leite de Freitas,
Pedro Miguel Sousa Pereira Guedes Moreira,
Ana Maria dos Santos Malhó,
Maria Isabel de Magalhães Ribeiro,
Pedro Manuel Franco Ribeiro
ProductsRail Transport (Passenger)
Revenue 288.559 million (2018)[1]
-36.9 million (2018)[1]
-105,6 million (2018)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Portugal (100%)
Number of employees
2,658 (2018)[1]
Websitewww.cp.pt
Comboios de Portugal
Map showing the railway lines in Portugal operated by CP in 2007. Some closures have been held since then.
A CP freight train in 2009
Technical
Track gauge1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) Iberian gauge and
1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Share of the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses, issued 1. July 1932
CP's Alfa Pendular tilting train at Orient Station in Lisbon.
Alfa Pendular train at Oriente Station Lisbon
CP suburban trains at São Bento Station in Porto.

In 2019, CP transported 145 million passengers, 19 million more than in 2018.[2][3]

History


On 28 October 1856, the first railway line was inaugurated in Portugal, between Lisbon and Carregado: the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses was born. The network was gradually expanded both south of the Tagus and to the north of the country, as well as in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto and to Spain. During the second half of the 20th century, much of CP's rolling stock was built in Portugal by Sorefame - notably carriages with stainless steel bodywork.

Gradually, electrification was put in place for a little less than half the network. In 1975, the company was nationalised, and its name was shortened to CP, A plan to finally connect all the district capitals by a fully electrified double line was to be implemented from 2010. Part of this plan is based on the Swiss Rail 2000 model.[4]

Manuel Antunes Frasquilho served as Chairman of the Board of directors between 1996 and 1997.[5]

The Vouga line is now the only narrow gauge line left in operation.

Infrastructure


The infrastructure of the Portuguese network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal, usually abbreviated to IP

Portuguese railway network extent:

  • Broad gauge (1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in)): 2,603 km (1,617 mi), 1,351 km (839 mi) electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC and 25 km (16 mi) at 1.5 kV DC.
  • Narrow gauge (metre gauge) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in): 188 km (117 mi) not electrified.
  • The maximum extent of 3,592 km (2,232 mi) was reached in 1949, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s some lines were shortened and some totally closed.

Organisation


CP is split into three divisions:

  • CP Longo Curso, long-distance mainline services (Alfa Pendular, Intercidades and International trains).
  • CP Regional, regional services (Interregional and Regional).
  • CP Urban Services

Services


CP offers the following types of trains:

  • International (IN) is the service that connects Portugal with Spain and France. These are the Sud-Express (Lisbon-Hendaye), Lusitânia (Lisbon-Madrid) and Celta (Porto - Vigo). Both Sud Express and Lusitânia are night trains that run under Renfe's Trenhotel (Hotel Train) brand.
  • Alfa Pendular (AP) is the fastest service, whose speeds can reach 220 km/h. This service runs from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga or Guimarães (passing through Coimbra, Aveiro and Porto) or between Porto and Faro.
  • Intercidades (IC) is a fast long-distance service whose speeds can reach 200 km/h. All IC services (apart from the Beja Shuttle) run from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga, Guimarães, Guarda, Covilhã or Évora (with connection at Casa Branca to Beja), serving the majority of the Portuguese regions. Service to southern Portugal runs to cities including Tunes, Faro, and Albufeira.[6]
  • Inter-Regional (IR) is a medium distance service which stops only at the main stations. Runs mainly on the routes Porto-Viana do Castelo-Valença (Minho Line), Porto-Régua-Pocinho (Douro Line), Lisbon-Caldas da Rainha-Leiria-Coimbra (West Line) and Lisbon-Tomar (North Line). Services are operated by the same trains as Regional service.
  • Regional (R) is CP's local service, stopping at all stations, out of the Lisbon and Porto suburban areas.
  • Urbano (U) is the CP's urban service, in the regions of Lisbon and Porto and in the Coimbra-Figueira da Foz Line.

The network


CP's flagship service, introduced in 1999, is the Alfa Pendular which operates between Braga - Porto - Lisbon - Faro, at a top speed of 220 km/h (138 mph) with FIAT/Siemens tilting trains. As of 2006, CP's network reaches most of the country.[7]

CP inaugurated new trains in suburban service in the 1990s.

Lines/Routes


Current

Iberian gauge
Metre gauge

Former lines

Iberian gauge
Metre gauge
  • Póvoa line (transformed into Porto Metro between Porto and Póvoa de Varzim between 2002 and 2006, closed between Póvoa de Varzim and Famalicão in 1995)
  • Guimarães line (transformed into Porto Metro between Senhora da Hora and ISMAI in 2005, closed between ISMAI and Trofa in 2001, converted to Iberian gauge between Trofa and Guimarães in 2004 and closed between Guimarães and Fafe in 1986)
  • Corgo line (closed between Vila Real and Chaves in 1990, remaining section closed in 2009)
  • Dão line (closed in 1989)
  • Sabor line (closed in 1988)
  • Tâmega line (closed between Amarante and Arco de Baúlhe in 1990, remaining section closed in 2009. there are efforts to partially reopen the line)
  • Tua line (closed between Mirandela and Bragança in 1992 and between Tua and Cachão in 2008, Metro de Mirandela reopened Mirandela–Carvalhais section in 1995 and explored the Cachão–Mirandela–Carvalhais section until 2019)
  • Viseu branch (closed in 1990)

Future lines

Passenger rolling stock


Locomotives

Image Class In Service

since

Numbers Traction Gauge Max Speed Services
In Service Total
0180 1924 1 2 Steam Iberian

1668 mm

Seasonal

Heritage

1400 1967 11 20 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

105 km/h Regional

InterRegional

2600 1974 5 12 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

160 km/h InterRegional
2620 1987 4 9 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

160 km/h InterRegional
5600 1993 19 24 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

220 km/h InterCidades
E200 1911 - 1923 1 6 Steam Meter

1000 mm

Seasonal

Heritage

9000 1975 1 3 Diesel Meter

1000 mm

70 Km/h Seasonal

Heritage

Multiple Units

Image Class Type In Service

since

Numbers Traction Gauge Max Speed Services
In Service Total
0350 1 Car DMU 2000 3 18 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

100 km/h Regional
0450 2 Car DMU 1999 19 19 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Regional

InterCidades

592.0

592.2

3 Car DMU 2011 24 24 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h (592.0)

140 km/h (592.2)

Regional

InterRegional

International

(Celta)

9630 2 Car DMU 1991 7 7 Diesel Meter

1000 mm

90 km/h Regional
2000/2050/2080 3 Car EMU 1957/1963/1967 0 5 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

90 Km/h Not in Service
2240 3 Car EMU 2004 55 55 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Regional

InterRegional

2300 4 Car EMU 1992 42 42 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Urbano
2400 4 Car EMU 1997 14 14 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Urbano
3150 3 Car EMU 1998 13 13 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

90 km/h Urbano
3250 4 Car EMU 1998 18 21 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

90 km/h Urbano
3400 4 Car EMU 2002 34 34 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

140 km/h Urbano
3500 4 Car EMU 1999 12 12 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

140 km/h Urbano
4000 6 Car EMU 1999 9 10 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

220 km/h Alfa

Passenger Cars

Image Name In Service

since

Numbers Gauge Max Speed Services Notes
In Service Total
Stainless Steel Cars with A/C
Corail 1985 58 58 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h InterCidades
Sorefame

Modernizada

1993-1996 45 45 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h InterCidades
Mild Steel Cars with A/C
Arco 2021 0 36 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h InterRegional Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Simafe N/A 0 4 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Gran Confort N/A 0 5 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Corail N/A 0 5 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Stainless Steel Cars without A/C
Sorefame

Clássica

1963-1984 5 74 Iberian

1668 mm

140 Km/h Regional

InterRegional

Mild Steel Cars without A/C
Schindler 1948-1949 14 19 Iberian

1668 mm

120 Km/h Regional

InterRegional

Napolitanas 1931 1 5 Meter

1000 mm

Seasonal

Heritage

Major stations


Lisbon

  • Cais do Sodré - for local trains from Lisbon to Cascais. Portugal's busiest interchange station (train/ferry/subway/tram/bus)
  • Oriente - for trains to the north and to the Algarve
  • Rossio - for local trains to Sintra
  • Santa Apolónia - for trains to the north and to Spain

Porto

Other

See also


References


  1. Comboios de Portugal (2018). "Relatório & Contas Consolidado" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  2. https://www.cp.pt/institucional/pt/empresa
  3. "Passageiros e receitas da CP aumentam em 2019". Sol. 2020-03-08. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  4. Stohler, Werner. "Modernização do sistema da exploração ferroviária da Região de Coimbra" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  5. CEEP Portugal - A Regulação dos Preços Como Instrumento de Regulação Pública dos Serviços de Interesse Geral
  6. See the timetable at www.cp.pt
  7. "CP route map" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2011.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)