Common Security and Defence Policy


The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and crisis management, and a main component of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

European Defence Union

Emblems of the External Action Service (EEAS; left) and Defence Agency (EDA; right)
Arms of the Military Committee (EUMC; left) and its chairman (CEUMC; middle), as well as the Military Staff (EUMS, part of the EEAS; right)

Structure
Founded1999 (as the European Security and Defence Policy)
Current form2009 (Treaty of Lisbon)
HeadquartersExternal Action Service military and civilian planning and conduct capabilities (Kortenberg building), Brussels, Belgium
Websiteeeas.europa.eu
Leadership
High RepresentativeJosep Borrell
Director General EU Military StaffLt. Gen Esa Pulkkinen
Chairman EU Military CommitteeGeneral Claudio Graziano
Manpower
Active personnel1,823,000 (2014)[2]
Expenditures
Budget$226.73 billion (2016)[2]
Percent of GDP1.42% (2014)[2]

The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with secondments from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[lower-alpha 4] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure — headed by the Union's High Representative (HR/VP), Federica Mogherini, and sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU) in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm[3][4][5][lower-alpha 5] — comprises:

The EU C2 structures are much smaller than the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Command Structure (NCS), which has been established for territorial defence. It has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, is the EU's first permanent military OHQ. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects.

Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC, generally requiring unanimity, and then implemented by the HR/VP.

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History

Commands of the Western Union's service branches, situated in the Palace of Fontainebleau 1948–1951
Organisational chart of the European Defence Community, which was proposed by French prime minister René Pleven but failed to acquire ratification by the French parliament in 1954

The post-war period saw several short-lived or ill-fated initiatives for European defence integration intended to protect against potential Soviet or German aggression: The Western Union (WU, also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation, BTO) and the proposed European Defence Community were respectively cannibalised by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and rejected by the French Parliament. The largely dormant Western European Union (WEU) succeeded the WU's remainder in 1955.

In 1970 the European Political Cooperation (EPC) brought about the European Communities' (EC) initial foreign policy coordination. Opposition to the addition of security and defence matters to the EPC led to the reactivation of the WEU in 1984 by its member states, which were also EC member states.

European defence integration gained momentum soon after the end of the Cold War, partly as a result of the EC's failure to prevent the Yugoslav Wars. In 1992, the WEU was given new tasks, and the following year the Treaty of Maastricht founded the EU and replaced the EPC with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) pillar. In 1996 NATO agreed to let the WEU develop a so-called European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI).[6] The 1998 St. Malo declaration signalled that the traditionally hesitant United Kingdom was prepared to provide the EU with autonomous defence structures.[7] This facilitated the transformation of the ESDI into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, when it was transferred to the EU. In 2003 the EU deployed its first CSDP missions, and adopted the European Security Strategy identifying common threats and objectives. In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP, while establishing the EEAS, the mutual defence clause and enabling a subset of member states to pursue defence integration within PESCO. In 2011 the WEU, whose tasks had been transferred to the EU, was dissolved. In 2016 a new security strategy was introduced, which along with the Russian annexation of Crimea, the scheduled British withdrawal from the EU and the election of Trump as US President have given the CSDP a new impetus.

Deployments

Since 2002, the European Union has intervened abroad thirty-five times in three different continents.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM, today: North Macedonia). Operation Concordia used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as in the FYROM, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of Operation Althea.[8]

Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during "Operation Artemis" under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC's peace process back on track. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country's elections.

Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA.[9] The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009.[10]

The EU launched its first maritime CSDP operation on 12 December 2008 (Operation Atalanta). The concept of the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) was created on the back of this operation, which is still successfully combatting piracy off the coast of Somalia almost a decade later. A second such intervention was launched in 2015 to tackle migration problems in the southern Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR Med), working under the name Operation SOPHIA.

Most of the CSDP missions deployed so far are mandated to support Security Sector Reforms (SSR) in host-states. One of the core principles of CSDP support to SSR is local ownership. The EU Council defines ownership as "the appropriation by the local authorities of the commonly agreed objectives and principles".[11] Despite EU's strong rhetorical attachment to the local ownership principle, research shows that CSDP missions continue to be an externally driven, top-down and supply-driven endeavour, resulting often in the low degree of local participation.[12]

Structure

High Representative Federica Mogherini

The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[lower-alpha 6] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure, headed by the Union's High Representative (HR/VP), Federica Mogherini, comprises:

While the EU has a command and control (C2) structure, it has no standing permanent military structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO), although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent military headquarters. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects. The CSDP structure is sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU), especially in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm.[13][14][15][lower-alpha 7]

Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC, generally requiring unanimity, and then implemented by the HR/VP.

The EU command and control (C2) structure, as directed by political bodies which are composed of member states's representatives and generally require unanimous decisions, as of April 2019:[16]

Liaison:          Advice and recommendations          Support and monitoring          Preparatory work     
Political strategic level:
ISS
 
 
 
 
 
 
EUCO Pres. (EUCO)
 
 
 
Chain of command
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coordination/support
 
SatCen
 
 
CIVCOM
 
 
HR/VP (FAC)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INTCEN
 
 
HR/VP (PMG)
 
 
HR/VP (PSC) (******)
 


CEUMC (EUMC)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CMPD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


DGEUMS (***) (EUMS)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military/civilian strategic level:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Dir MPCC (***) (MPCC)
 
JSCC
 
Civ OpCdr CPCC(*)
 
 
Operational level:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MFCdr (****) (MFHQ)
 
 
 
 
 
HoM (*)
 
 
 
 
 
Tactical level:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CC(**) Land
 
CC(**) Air
 
CC(**) Mar
 
Other CCs(**)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forces
 
Forces
 
Forces
 
Forces
 
 
 


*In the event of a CSDP Civilian Mission also being in the field, the relation with the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) and its Civilian Operation Commander (Civ OpCdr), as well as the subordinate Head of Mission (HoM), are coordinated as shown.
**Other Comonent Commanders (CCs) and service branches which may be established
***The MPCC is part of the EUMS and Dir MPCC is double-hatted as DGEUMS. Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), either a national OHQ offered by member states or the NATO Command Structure (NCS) would serve this purpose. In the latter instance, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR), rather than Dir MPCC, would serve as Operation Commander (OpCdr).
****Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), the MFCdr would be known as a Force Commander (FCdr), and direct a Force Headquarters (FHQ) rather than a MFHQ. Whereas the MFHQ would act both on the operational and tactical level, the FHQ would act purely on the operational level.
*****The political strategic level is not part of the C2 structure per se, but represents the political bodies, with associated support facilities, that determine the missions' general direction. The Council determines the role of the High Representative (HR/VP), who serves as Vice-President of the European Commission, attends European Council meetings, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) and may chair the Political and Security Committee (PSC) in times of crisis. The HR/VP proposes and implements CSDP decisions.
******Same composition as Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) II, which also prepares for the CSDP-related work of the FAC.

Strategy

The European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) is the updated doctrine of the EU to improve the effectiveness of the CSDP, including the defence and security of the members states, the protection of civilians, cooperation between the member states' armed forces, management of immigration, crises etc. Adopted on 28 June 2016,[17] it replaces the European Security Strategy of 2003. The EUGS is complemented by a document titled "Implementation Plan on Security and Defense" (IPSD).[18]

Forces

National

National armed forces' personnel combined (2016)[19]

The CSDP is implemented using civilian and military contributions from member states' armed forces, which also are obliged to collective self-defence based on Treaty on European Union (TEU).

Six EU states host nuclear weapons: France and the United Kingdom each have their own nuclear programmes, while Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands host US nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy. Combined, the EU possesses 525 warheads, and hosts between 90 and 130 US warheads. Italy hosts 70-90 B61 nuclear bombs, while Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands 10-20 each one.[20] The EU has the third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons, after the United States and Russia.

Expenditure and personnel

The following table presents the military expenditures of the members of the European Union in euros (€). The combined military expenditure of the member states amounts to just over is €192.5 billion.[2] This represents 1.55% of European Union GDP and is second only to the €503 billion military expenditure of the United States. The US figure represents 4.66% of United States GDP.[21] European military expenditure includes spending on joint projects such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and joint procurement of equipment. The European Union's combined active military forces in 2011 totaled 1,551,038 personnel. According to the European Defence Agency, the European Union had an average of 53,744 land force personnel deployed around the world (or 3.5% of the total military personnel). In a major operation the EU could readily deploy up-to 425,824 land force personnel and sustain 110,814 of those during an enduring operation.[21] In comparison, the US had on average 177,700 troops deployed in 2011. This represents 12.5% of US military personnel.[21]

In a speech in 2012, Swedish General Håkan Syrén criticised the spending levels of European Union countries, saying that in the future those countries' military capability will decrease, creating "critical shortfalls".[22]

Guide to table:

  • All figure entries in the table below are provided by the European Defence Agency for the year 2012. Figures from other sources are not included.
  • The "operations & maintenance expenditure" category may in some circumstances also include finances on-top of the nations defence budget.
  • The categories "troops prepared for deployed operations" and "troops prepared for deployed and sustained operation" only include land force personnel.
Member state Expenditure (€ mn.) Per capita (€) % of GDP Operations & maintenance expenditure (€ mn.) Active military personnel Land troops prepared for deployed and sustained operations
Austria[2]2,4532910.8250727,110
Belgium[2]3,9863631.0865131,8941,897
Bulgaria[2]545731.4211128,767900
Croatia[2]6101461.4118,000
Cyprus[2]3454001.925012,392
Czech Republic[2]1,8201731.1750122,1291,350
Denmark[2]3,0205351.1624,509
Estonia[2]3402542.001013,190188
Finland[2]2,6544931.407058,844
France[2]39,1055971.937,613218,20029,444
Germany[2]32,4903971.23191,721
Greece[2]3,2722901.69738109,0702,552
Hungary[2]1,0001001.0032918,0881,057
Ireland[2]8811960.55899,450850
Italy[2]20,6003381.322,087184,318
Latvia[2]2101021.04454,832212
Lithuania[2]462831.115515,800413
Luxembourg[2]2013860.4721105744
Malta[2]40960.6261,69830
Netherlands[2]8,1564891.352,12844,6555,050
Poland[2]6,7541751.951,331120,0004,946
Portugal[2]2,6692511.5625335,2542,254
Romania[2]1,713801.2618968,3402,953
Slovakia[2]7631401.1016813,501722
Slovenia[2]4782331.32817,107454
Spain[2]10,0592180.951,742124,5617,850
Sweden[2]5,6805741.001,84714,6001,966
UK[2]43,6966912.3017,052205,81019,000
EU[2]192,5353871.5545,2191,551,038110,814
Naval forces
Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier is one of the largest commissioned warships in the European Union.

The combined component strength of the naval forces of member states is some 564 commissioned warships. Of those in service, 5 are fleet carriers, the largest of which is the 70,600 tonne Queen Elizabeth-class. The EU also has 5 amphibious assault ships and 25 amphibious support ships in service. Of the EU's 60 submarines, 21 are nuclear-powered submarines (11 British and 10 French) while 39 are conventional attack submarines.

Operation Atalanta (formally European Union Naval Force Somalia) is the first ever (and still ongoing) naval operation of the European Union. It is part of a larger global action by the EU in the Horn of Africa to deal with the Somali crisis. As of January 2011 twenty-three EU nations participate in the operation.

France, Italy and United Kingdom have blue-water navies.[23]

Guide to table:

  • Ceremonial vessels, research vessels, supply vessels, training vessels, and icebreakers are not included.
  • The table only counts warships that are commissioned (or equivalent) and active.
  • Surface vessels displacing less than 200 tonnes are not included, regardless of other characteristics.
  • The "amphibious support ship" category includes amphibious transport docks and dock landing ships, and tank landing ships.
  • Frigates over 6,000 tonnes are classified as destroyers.
  • The "patrol vessel" category includes missile boats.
  • The "anti-mine ship" category includes mine countermeasures vessels, minesweepers and minehunters.
  • Generally, total tonnage of ships is more important than total number of ships, as it gives a better indication of capability.
Member state Fleet carrier Amphibious assault ship Amphibious support ship Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol vessel Antimine ship Missile sub. Attack sub. Total Tonnage
Austria00
Belgium[24]225910,009
Bulgaria1431101815,160
Croatia5272,869
Cyprus5 5 0
Czech Republic0 0
Denmark[25]5491851,235
Estonia332,000
Finland4412205,429
France[26]132131120184676319,195
Germany[27]37581564482,790
Greece[28]51333[29]411[29]66137,205
Hungary00
Ireland[30]8811,219
Italy[31]2341451110857303,411
Latvia553,025
Lithuania[32]4485,678
Luxembourg00
Malta[33]1515400
Netherlands[34]24246422116,308
Poland[35]52131932819,724
Portugal[36]57722334,686
Romania[37]37652123,090
Slovakia00
Slovenia[38]112435
Spain[39]1[lower-alpha 8](1)[lower-alpha 8]25[lower-alpha 9]6[lower-alpha 10]236346148,607
Sweden[40]61152214,256
UK[41]2256134154758367,850
EU6525319348173151855564 ~5641,500,000 ~1,500,000
Land forces
The Leopard 2 main battle tank

Combined, the member states of the European Union maintain large numbers of various land-based military vehicles and weaponry.

Guide to table:

  • The table is not exhaustive and primarily includes vehicles and EU-NATO member countries under the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE treaty). Unless otherwise specified.
  • The CFE treaty only includes vehicles stationed within Europe, vehicles overseas on operations are not counted.
  • The "main battle tank" category also includes tank destroyers (such as the Italian B1 Centauro) or any self-propelled armoured fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "armoured fighting vehicle" category includes any armoured vehicle primarily designed to transport infantry and equipped with an automatic cannon of at least 20 mm calibre. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "artillery" category includes self-propelled or towed howitzers and mortars of 100 mm calibre and above. Other types of artillery are not included regardless of characteristics. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "attack helicopter" category includes any rotary wing aircraft armed and equipped to engage targets or equipped to perform other military functions (such as the Apache or the Wildcat). According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "military logistics vehicle" category includes logistics trucks of 4-tonne, 8-tonne, 14-tonne or larger, purposely designed for military tasking. Not under CFE treaty.
Member state Main battle tank Armoured fighting vehicle Artillery Attack helicopter Military logistics vehicle
Austria5436473
Belgium[42]022613327
Bulgaria[42]3626811,03512
Croatia[43]7528312710
Cyprus
Czech Republic[42]12350118224
Denmark[42]462295612
Estonia[44]74
Finland1801,08072225
France[42]4506,25634928310,746
Germany[42]8151,774401158
Greece[42]1,6222,1871,92029
Hungary[42]30400128
Ireland[45]10736
Italy[42]1,1763,1451,44610710,921
Latvia
Lithuania[46]8896
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands[42]1663413521
Poland[47]1,6753,1101,58083
Portugal[42]220425377
Romania[42]8571,2721,27323
Slovakia[42]3032768
Slovenia765263
Spain[42]4841,00781127
Sweden120978268
UK[42]4275,27865819012,344
EU[42]7,69518,8199,817963
Air forces
A Eurofighter Typhoon of the Royal Air Force

The air forces of EU member states operate a wide range of military systems and hardware. This is primarily due to the independent requirements of each member state and also the national defence industries of some member states. However such programmes like the Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger have seen many European nations design, build and operate a single weapons platform. 60% of overall combat fleet was developed and manufactured by member states, 32% are US-origin, but some of these were assembled in Europe, while remaining 8% are soviet-made aircraft. As of 2014, it is estimated that the European Union had around 2,000 serviceable combat aircraft (fighter aircraft and ground-attack aircraft).[48]

The EUs air-lift capabilities are evolving with the future introduction of the Airbus A400M (another example of EU defence cooperation). The A400M is a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.[49] Around 140 are initially expected to be operated by 6 member states (UK, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Spain and Belgium).

Guide to tables:

  • The tables are sourced from figures provided by Flight International for the year 2014.
  • Aircraft are grouped into three main types (indicated by colours): red for combat aircraft, green for aerial refueling aircraft, and grey for strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
  • The two "other" columns include additional aircraft according to their type sorted by colour (i.e. the "other" category in red includes combat aircraft, while the "other" category in grey includes both aerial refueling and transport aircraft). This was done because it was not feasible allocate every aircraft type its own column.
  • Other aircraft such as trainers, helicopters, UAVs and reconnaissance or surveillance aircraft are not included in the below tables or figures.
Fighter and ground-attack
Member state Typhoon Rafale Mirage 2000 Gripen F-16 F/A-18 F-35 Tornado MiG-29 Other Total
Austria[48]1515
Belgium[48]5959
Bulgaria[48]1515
Croatia[48]12 MiG-2112
Cyprus[48]
Czech Republic[48]1419 L-15933
Denmark[48]6060
Estonia[48]
Finland[48]6262
France[48]137152289
Germany[48]117116233
Greece[48]4315434 F-4231
Hungary[48]1414
Ireland[48]
Italy[48]95107555 AMX, 17 Harrier II252
Latvia[48]
Lithuania[48]3 L-393
Luxembourg[48]
Malta[48]
Netherlands[48]87289
Poland[48]483136 Su-22115
Portugal[48]3131
Romania[48]1236 MiG-2148
Slovakia[48]127 L-3919
Slovenia[48]9 Pilatus PC-99
Spain[48]458617 Harrier II148
Sweden[48]9595
UK[48]15312543222
EU[48]43213113712346314816278582292,043
Aerial refueling and transport
Member state A330 MRTT A310 MRTT KC-135/707 C-17 C-130 C-160 C-27J CN-235/C-295 An-26 A400M Other Total
Austria[48]55
Belgium[48]111 A32112
Bulgaria[48]221 A3195
Croatia[48]42 An-32B6
Cyprus[48]
Czech Republic[48]462 A31912
Denmark[48]44
Estonia[48]
Finland[48]21 F273
France[48]1414362763 A310
3 A340
99
Germany[48]47111 A310
2 A319
76
Greece[48]13821
Hungary[48]44
Ireland[48]21 BNT-2 CC2/B3
Italy[48]16124 KC-767
3 KC-130J
3 A319
38
Latvia[48]
Lithuania[48]314
Luxembourg[48]
Malta[48]2 BNT-2 CC2/B
2 King Air 200
4
Netherlands[48]42 (K)DC-106
Poland[48]51620
Portugal[48]6713
Romania[48]27211
Slovakia[48]22
Slovenia[48]1 Let L-410 Turbolet
2 Pilatus PC-6 Porter
1 Dassault Falcon 2000
4
Spain[48]27215 KC-130H
2 A310
37
Sweden[48]71 KC-130H8
UK[48]1182444 BAe 146
3 BNT-2 CC2/B
54
EU[48]1141681071073081161148435

Multinational

Established at Union level
Irish Army personnel from the Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010

The Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue is a listing of rapid reaction forces composed of 60,000 troops managed by the European Union, but under control of the countries who deliver troops for it.

Forces introduced at Union level include:

  • The battle groups (BG) adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[50][51] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the Council of the European Union. The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[52] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new "standing army" for Europe.[51] The troops and equipment are drawn from the EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[53]
  • The Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of EU missions, formed as part of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).[54] The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.[55]
  • The Force Crisis Response Operation Core (EUFOR CROC) is a flagship defence project under development as part of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). EURFOR CROC will contribute to the creation of a "full spectrum force package" to speed up provision of military forces and the EU's crisis management capabilities.[56] Rather than creating a standing force, the project involves creating a concrete catalogue of military force elements that would speed up the establishment of a force when the EU decides to launch an operation. It is land-focused and aims to generate a force of 60,000 troops from the contributing states alone. While it does not establish any form of "European army", it foresees an deployable, interoperable force under a single command.[57] Germany is the lead country for the project, but the French are heavily involved and it is tied to President Emmanuel Macron's proposal to create a standing intervention force. The French see it as an example of what PESCO is about.[58]
Provided through Article 42.3 TEU
Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013

This section presents an incomplete list of forces and bodies established intergovernmentally amongst a subset of member states. These organisations will deploy forces based on the collective agreement of their member states. They are typically technically listed as being able to be deployed under the auspices of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union (EU) through Article 42.3 of TEU, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or any other international entity.

However, with the exception of the Eurocorps, very few have actually been deployed for any real military operation, and none under the CSDP at any point in its history.

Land Forces:

A Royal Air Force Airbus A400M Atlas at RAF Brize Norton. The aircraft will replace the RAF's existing fleet of C-130 Hercules as the A400M represents major advances, capable of flying almost twice as fast, twice as far and carrying almost twice as much cargo.

Aerial:

  • The European Air Transport Command exercises operational control of the majority of the aerial refueling capabilities and military transport fleets of its participating nations. Located at Eindhoven Airbase in the Netherlands, the command also bears a limited responsibility for exercises, aircrew training and the harmonisation of relevant national air transport regulations.[61][62] The command was established in 2010 to provide a more efficient management of the participating nations' assets and resources in this field.

Naval:

Participation, relationship with NATO

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants—Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. Two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact. Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[2]

  Non-European countries
National participation in the principal European and trans-Atlantic defence arrangements
 
European Union
 
North Atlantic
Treaty Organization
Organisation for
Joint Armament
Cooperation
Membership Common Security and Defence Policy
General
participation
Permanent Structured
Cooperation
 Albania No No No 2009 No
 Austria 1995 Founder Founder No No
 Belgium Founder Founder Founder Founder 2003
 Bulgaria 2007 2007 Founder 2004 No
 Canada No No No Founder No
 Cyprus 2004 2007 Founder No No
 Croatia 2013 2013 Founder 2009 No
 Czechia 2004 2004 Founder 1999 No
 Denmark 1973 No No Founder No
 Estonia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Finland 1995 Founder Founder No Partial
 France Founder Founder Founder Founder Founder
 Germany Founder Founder Founder 1955 Founder
 Greece 1981 Founder Founder 1952 No
 Hungary 2004 2004 Founder 1999 No
 Iceland No No No Founder No
 Ireland 1973 Founder Founder No No
 Italy Founder Founder Founder Founder Founder
 Latvia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Lithuania 2004 2004 Founder 2004 Partial
 Luxembourg Founder Founder Founder Founder Partial
 Malta 2004 2004 No No No
 Montenegro No No No 2017 No
 Netherlands Founder Founder Founder Founder Partial
 Norway No EDA partnership No Founder No
 Poland 2004 2004 Founder 1999 Partial
 Portugal 1986 Founder Founder Founder No
 Romania 2007 2007 Founder 2004 No
 Serbia No EDA partnership No No No
 Slovakia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Slovenia 2004 2004 Founder 2004 No
 Spain 1986 Founder Founder Founder 1982
 Sweden 1995 Founder Founder No Partial
 Switzerland No EDA partnership No No No
 Turkey No No No 1952 Partial
 Ukraine No EDA partnership No No No
 United Kingdom 1973 Founder No Founder Founder
 United States No No No Founder No

The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.[66] These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's 1999 Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism,[67] and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's military assets in its own peacekeeping operations.

Chart presented in 2012 by then Director General of the Military Staff Lt. gen. Ton van Osch, indicating that the utility of the combined civilian and military components of the EU policy could be considered more effective than NATO for a limited level of conflict.

See also

Other defence-related EU initiatives:

Other Pan-European defence organisations (intergovernmental):

Regional, integorvernmental defence organisations in Europe:

Atlanticist intergovernmental defence organisations:

Notes

  1. The United Kingdom does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  2. The Edinburgh Agreement of 1992 included a guarantee to Denmark that they would not be obliged to join the Western European Union, which was responsible for defence. Additionally, the agreement stipulated that Denmark would not take part in discussions or be bound by decisions of the EU with defence implications. The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997 included a protocol which formalised this opt-out from the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). As a consequence, Denmark is excluded from foreign policy discussions with defence implications and does not participate in foreign missions with a defence component.[1] Denmark does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation. See Opt-outs in the European Union#Defence – Denmark.
  3. Malta does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  4. The responsibility of collective selv-defence within the CSDP is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of nautrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject.According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.
  5. Akin to the EU’s banking union, economic and monetary union and customs union.
  6. The responsibility of collective selv-defence within the CSDP is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of nautrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject.According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.
  7. Akin to the EU’s banking union, economic and monetary union and customs union.
  8. Spain withdrew last classic aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias in 2013 (currently in reserve). New universal ship of Juan Carlos I has the function of fleet carrier and amphibious assault ship.
  9. F-100 class
  10. Santa María class

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Further reading