Coney Island is a peninsular neighborhood and entertainment area in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is bounded by Brighton Beach to its east, Lower New York Bay to the south and west, and Gravesend to the north, and includes the subsections of Sea Gate to its west and Brighton Beach to its east. Coney Island was formerly the westernmost of the Outer Barrier islands on the southern shore of Long Island, but in the early 20th century it became a peninsula, connected to the rest of Long Island by land fill.
Coney Island beach, amusement parks, and high-rises, as seen from the pier in June 2016
"Playground of the World"
Location in New York City
Note: red area overlaps with Sea Gate.
|City||New York City|
|Community District||Brooklyn 13|
|Founded by||Dutch settlers|
|• Total||1.790 km2 (0.691 sq mi)|
|• Density||14,000/km2 (36,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Area code||718, 347, 929, and 917|
The origin of Coney Island's name is disputed, but the area was originally part of the colonial town of Gravesend. By the mid-19th century it had become a seaside resort, and by the late 19th century, amusement parks had also been built at the location. The attractions reached a historical peak during the first half of the 20th century. However, they declined in popularity after World War II and, following years of neglect, several structures were torn down. Various redevelopment projects were proposed for Coney Island in the 1970s through the 2000s, though most of these were not carried out. The area was revitalized with the opening of MCU Park in 2001 and several amusement rides starting in the 2010s.
Coney Island had around 32,000 residents as of the 2010 United States Census. The neighborhood is ethnically diverse, and the neighborhood's poverty rate of 27% is slightly higher than that of the city as a whole.
Coney Island is part of Brooklyn Community District 13, and its primary ZIP Code is 11224. It is patrolled by the 60th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Fire services are provided by the New York City Fire Department's Engine 245/Ladder 161/Battalion 43 and Engine 318/Ladder 166. Politically, Coney Island is represented by the New York City Council's 47th District. The area is well served by the New York City Subway and local bus routes, and contains several public elementary and middle schools.
Geography and climate
The Encyclopedia of New York City considers the area west of Ocean Parkway (including Sea Gate and Nortons Point Light) to be part of the Coney Island neighborhood. The neighborhood is situated on the western portion of the Coney Island peninsula, located on the western end of Long Island lying to the west of the Outer Barrier islands along Long Island's southern shore. The peninsula is about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 0.5 miles (0.80 km) wide. It extends into Lower New York Bay with Sheepshead Bay to its northeast, Gravesend Bay and Coney Island Creek to its northwest, and the main part of Brooklyn to its north. At its highest it is 7 feet (2.1 m) above sea level. Coney Island was formerly an actual island, separated from greater Brooklyn by Coney Island Creek, and was the westernmost of the Outer Barrier islands. A large section of the creek was filled in the 1920s and 1930s, turning the island into a peninsula.:200
The perimeter of Coney Island features manmade structures designed to maintain its current shape. The beaches are currently not a natural feature; the sand that is naturally supposed to replenish Coney Island is cut off by the jetty at Breezy Point, Queens.:337 Sand has been redeposited on the beaches via beach nourishment since the construction of Riegelmann Boardwalk in 1922–1923, and is held in place by around two dozen groynes. A large sand-replenishing project along Coney Island and Brighton Beach took place in the 1990s.:337 Sheepshead Bay at the peninsula's northeast corner is, for the most part, enclosed in bulkheads. Two major parks, Kaiser Park and Coney Island Creek Park, are located on the northwest side of the peninsula along Coney Island Creek.
|Climate data for Coney Island, Brooklyn|
|Record high °F (°C)||70
|Average high °F (°C)||39
|Average low °F (°C)||25
|Record low °F (°C)||−4
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.86
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||6.7
The original Native American inhabitants of the region, the Lenape, called this area Narrioch, possibly meaning "land without shadows" or "always in light" in reference to its sunlit south-facing beaches. A second possible meaning is "point" or "corner of land". The "island" was originally several smaller historical islands, each being given a name by Dutch settlers, with the westernmost sand spit or point being given named Conyne Eylandt in early-17th-century Dutch maps.
There is no clear historical consensus on how the island got the name "Coney Island", in regular use in the first half of the 19th century with the advent of regular ferry service to the island, but several theories have been put forward.:27 One possible etymology is from a Native American tribe, the Konoh or Konoi (the "Bear Band"), who once inhabited the island.:27 A second theory suggests that it was distortion of the name of Henry Hudson's second mate on the Halve Maen, John Colman, who was slain by natives on the 1609 expedition. A third posits that late 18th century Irish captain Peter O'Connor named it after Coney Island in County Sligo, Ireland. Yet other theories suggest a Dutch etymology: one theory holds that the name had come from Conyn, the surname of a family of Dutch settlers who lived there, and another suggests that it came from the Dutch word for rabbit, "konijn", derived from a purported large population of wild rabbits on the island".
There is little evidence for each origin theory, and there are conflicts between the pieces of evidence that do exist. The most popular idea is the translation of the Dutch word for "rabbit" into to the English word coney, but that has its detractors and counter explanations. In 1816 politician and US Founding Father Egbert Benson presented a treatise on New York place names and said it was "Conyn's Island", after the Dutch surname, and noted "there are already symptoms of the beginning of a tradition that it once abounded in Rabbits". Other historians claim that rabbits were introduced to the island only after it was settled.:27–28 The 19th century also saw the heavily Irish New York Tammany Hall political machine controlling development of the island, and they may have gotten the name from the island in County Sligo rather than any tale of a rabbit population.
Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European explorer to sight the island of Narrioch during his expeditions to the area in 1527 and 1529. He was subsequently followed by Henry Hudson.:34 The Dutch established the colony of New Amsterdam in present-day Coney Island in the early 17th century. The Native American population in the area dwindled as the Dutch settlement grew and the entire southwest section of present-day Brooklyn was purchased in 1645 from the Native Americans in exchange for a gun, a blanket, and a kettle.
In 1644, a colonist named Guysbert Op Dyck was given a patent for 88 acres of land in the town of Gravesend, on the southwestern shore of Brooklyn. The patent included Conyne Island, an island just off the southwestern shore of the town of Gravesend, as well as Conyne Hook, a peninsula just east of the island. At the time, both were part of Gravesend.:4 East of Conyne Hook was the largest section of island called Gysbert's, Guysbert's, or Guisbert's Island (also called Johnson Island), containing most of the arable land and extending east through today's Brighton Beach and Manhattan Beach.:34 This was officially the first official real estate transaction for the island. Op Dyck never occupied his patent, and in 1661 he sold it off to Dick De Wolf. The land's new owner banned Gravesend residents from using Guisbert's Island and built a salt-works on the land, provoking outrage among Gravesend livestock herders. New Amsterdam was transferred to the English in 1664, and four years later, the English Governor created a new charter for Gravesend that excluded Coney Island. Subsequently, Guisbert's Island was divided into plots meted out to several dozen settlers. However, in 1685, the island became part of Gravesend again as a result of a new charter with the Native Americans.:36
At the time of European settlement, the land that makes up the present-day Coney Island was divided across several separate islands. All of these islands were part of the outer barrier on the southern shore of Long Island, and their land areas and boundaries changed frequently.:34 Only the westernmost island was called Coney Island; it currently makes up part of Sea Gate. At the time, it was a 1.25-mile shifting sandspit with a detached island at its western end extending into Lower New York Bay. In a 1679–1680 journal, Jasper Danckaerts and Peter Sluyter noted that "Conijnen Eylandt" was fully separated from the rest of Brooklyn. The explorers observed that "Nobody lives upon it, but it is used in winter for keeping cattle, horses, oxen, hogs and others.":36
By the early 18th century, the town of Gravesend was periodically granting seven-year-long leases to freeholders, who would then have the exclusive use of Coney Hook and Coney Island. In 1734, a road to Coney Hook was laid out.:37 Thomas Stillwell, a prominent Gravesend resident who was the freeholder for Coney Island and Coney Hook at the time, proposed to build a ditch through Coney Hook so it would be easier for his cattle to graze. He convinced several friends in the nearby town of Jamaica to help him in this effort, telling them that the creation of such a ditch would allow them to ship goods from Jamaica Bay to New York Harbor without having to venture out into the ocean.:37 In 1750, the "Jamaica Ditch" was dug through Coney Hook from Brown's Creek in the west to Hubbard's Creek in the east.:34 The creation of the canal turned Coney Hook into a detached 0.5-mile-long (0.80 km) island called Pine Island, so named due to the woods on it.:34
Each island was separated by an inlet that could only be crossed at low tide. By the end of the 18th century, the ongoing shifting of sand along the barrier islands had closed up the inlets to the point that residents began filling them in and joining them as one island. Development of Coney Island was slow until the 19th century due to land disputes, the American Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. Coney Island was so remote that Herman Melville wrote Moby-Dick on the island in 1849, and Henry Clay and Daniel Webster discussed the Missouri Compromise at the island the next year.
In 1824, the Gravesend and Coney Island Road and Bridge Company built the first bridge across Jamaica Ditch (by now known as Coney Island Creek), connecting the island with the mainland. The company also built a shell road across the island to the beaches. In 1829, the company also built the first hotel on the island: the Coney Island House, near present-day Sea Gate.:8
Due to Coney Island's proximity to Manhattan and other boroughs, and its simultaneous relative distance from the city of Brooklyn to provide the illusion of a proper vacation, it began attracting vacationers in the 1830s and 1840s, assisted by carriage roads and steamship service that reduced travel time from a formerly half-day journey to two hours.:15 Most of the vacationers were wealthy and went by carriage. Inventor Samuel Colt built an observation tower on the peninsula in 1845, but he abandoned the project soon after. In 1847, the middle class started going to Coney Island upon the introduction of a ferry line to Norton's Point—named during the mid-1870s after hotel owner Michael Norton—at the western portion of the peninsula. Gang activity started as well, with one 1870s writer noting that going to Coney Island could result in losing money and even lives. The Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Railroad became the first railroad to reach Coney Island when it opened in 1864, and it was completed in 1867.:71 Over the next 13 years, four more railroads were built specifically to transport visitors to Coney Island.:14
In 1868, William A. Engeman built a resort in the area. The resort was given the name "Brighton Beach" in 1878 by Henry C. Murphy and a group of businessmen, who chose the name as an allusion to the English resort city of Brighton. With the help of Gravesend's surveyor William Stillwell, Engeman acquired all 39 lots for the relatively low cost of $20,000.:38 This 460-by-210-foot (140 by 64 m) hotel, with rooms for up to 5,000 people nightly and meals for up to 20,000 people daily, was close to the then-rundown western Coney Island, so it was mostly the upper middle class that went to this hotel. The 400-foot (120 m), double-decker Brighton Beach Bathing Pavilion was also built nearby and opened in 1878, with the capacity for 1,200 bathers.:38 Hotel Brighton, also known as the Brighton Beach Hotel, was situated on the beach at what is now the foot of Coney Island Avenue.:248 The Brooklyn, Flatbush, and Coney Island Railway, the predecessor to the New York City Subway's present-day Brighton Line, opened on July 2, 1878, and provided access to the hotel.:38
Simultaneously, wealthy banker Austin Corbin was developing adjacent Manhattan Beach after being interested in the area during a trip to the beach to heal his sick son. Corbin, who worked on Wall Street and had many railroad investments, built the New York and Manhattan Beach Railway for his two luxury shoreline hotels. These hotels were used by the wealthy upper class, who would not go to Brighton Beach because of its proximity to Coney Island. The 150-room Manhattan Beach Hotel—which was designed by J. Pickering Putnam and contained restaurants, ballrooms, and shops—was opened for business in July 1877 at a ceremony presided over by President Ulysses S. Grant. The similarly prodigal Oriental Hotel, which hosted rooms for wealthy families staying for extended periods, was opened in August 1880.
Andrew R. Culver, president of the Prospect Park and Coney Island Railroad, had built the Culver Line steam railway to West Brighton in 1875,:248 before Corbin and Engeman had even built their railroads. For 35 cents, one could ride the Prospect Park & Coney Island Railroad to the Culver Depot terminal at Surf Avenue. Across the street from the terminal, the 300-foot (91 m) Iron Tower (also known as the Centennial Observatory), bought from the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition, provided patrons with a bird's-eye view of the coast. The nearby "Camera Obscura" similarly used mirrors and lens to provide a panoramic view of the area.:22–23 Coney Island became a major resort destination after the Civil War as excursion railroads and the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad streetcar line reached the area in the 1860s and 1870s, followed by the Iron Steamboat Company ferry to Manhattan in 1881.:29:64
The 150-suite Cable Hotel was built nearby in 1875. Next to it, on a 12-acre (4.9 ha) piece of land leased by James Voorhies, maitre d' Paul Bauer built the western peninsula's largest hotel, which opened in 1876. By the turn of the century, Victorian hotels, private bathhouses, and vaudeville theaters were a common sight on Coney island.:147 The three resort areas—Brighton Beach, Manhattan Beach and West Brighton—competed with each other for clientele. By the early 1900s, West Brighton had gradually become the most popular destination, and as such, became associated with the lively amusement area of Coney Island.:14–15
In the 1890s, Norton's Point on the western side of Coney Island was developed into Sea Gate, a gated summer community that catered mainly to the wealthy. A private yacht carried visitors directly from the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan Island. Notable tenants within the community included the Atlantic Yacht Club, which built a colonial style house along the waterfront.
Amusement park era
Between about 1880 and World War II, Coney Island was the largest amusement area in the United States, attracting several million visitors per year. Its development as an amusement area was concurrent with the erection of urban amusement parks elsewhere in the United States, which changed amusement from a passive to an active concept.:7, 8 Of these amusement areas, Coney Island was the largest. At its height, it contained three competing major amusement parks—Luna Park, Dreamland, and Steeplechase Park—as well as many independent amusements.:147–150:11:4 The area was also the center of new technological events, with electric lights, roller coasters, and baby incubators among the innovations at Coney Island in the 1900s.:147 By the first decade of the 20th century, Coney Island was seen as a top getaway and "a symbol of Americans' increasing pride".:21–22
By the late 1870s, Coney Island's hotels had drawn people from many different social classes, and attractions were being built.:30 When the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company electrified the steam railroads and connected Brooklyn to Manhattan via the Brooklyn Bridge at the beginning of the 20th century, Coney Island turned rapidly from a resort to an accessible location for day-trippers seeking to escape the summer heat in New York City's tenements. Charles I. D. Looff, a Danish woodcarver, built the first carousel and amusement ride at Coney Island in 1876, at Lucy Vandeveer's bath-house complex at West 6th Street and Surf Avenue. Looff personally hand-carved the designs into the carousel. Looff subsequently commissioned another carousel at Feltman's Ocean Pavilion in 1880.:88 Another early attraction was the Seaside Aquarium, which operated from 1877 to 1887 and included aquatic exhibits, aviaries, zoo attractions, and various sideshows.:31:15 The earliest rides, including Looff's first carousel and the Seaside Aquarium, were located at the Centennial Observatory's site.:32 The first sideshows and fireworks displays came to Coney Island in 1883, and combined with constant musical performances, brought increased excitement to the area.:34–37
The very first roller coaster at Coney Island was the Switchback Railway, a gravity coaster installed by LaMarcus Adna Thompson at West 10th Street in 1884. Nearby was the Elephantine Colossus, a seven-story building (including a brothel) in the shape of an elephant, which opened the following year.:38–39 Until its demolition in 1896, the elephant was the first sight to greet immigrants arriving in New York, who would see it before they saw the Statue of Liberty.:40–42 Next to be developed were horse-racing tracks, and by 1890, Coney Island had three tracks: Sheepshead Bay Race Track, Brighton Beach Race Course, and Gravesend Race Track.:46:248 Julian Ralph described Coney Island in 1896 as "the first made-to-order resort in America", with many businesses having "leaped from nothing into full fledged perfection".:248 However, crime and corruption in Coney Island were prevalent. The main leader of this corruption was John Y. McKane, who ran prizefighting rings behind the elephant until he was arrested and sentenced in 1894.:48–51
The development of amusement rides in Coney Island intensified in the 1890s with the opening of amusement parks. The first such park was Sea Lion Park, which operated from 1895 to 1902 and was the first amusement park to charge entry fees. Sea Lion Park's opening spurred the construction of George C. Tilyou's Steeplechase Park, which opened in 1897.:12:249 The Coney Island "Funny Face" logo, which is still extant, dates to the early days of Steeplechase Park.
Early 20th century
The first decade of the 20th century saw two more large amusement parks. Luna Park opened in 1903 on the site of Sea Lion Park, which had closed the previous year.:249:60–61 The park contained a variety of attractions and exotic landscaping, lit by electricity at night;:249–250 its flagship ride was A Trip to the Moon, an attraction based on Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon.:62 The following year saw the opening of Dreamland, which reproduced many attractions at Luna Park, but at a grander scale, with a large central tower and lagoon, a sunken plaza, and one million electric lights.:250:68–69 Additionally, the City of New York made efforts to condemn all buildings and piers built south of Surf Avenue in an effort to reclaim the beach and create a boardwalk, though the local amusement community opposed the move. Eventually, the city government and the community reached an agreement mandating that the beach did not begin until 1,000 feet (300 m) south of Surf Avenue and that the territory would be marked by a city-owned boardwalk. In return, the city would demolish any structures built upon public streets to reclaim beach access.
The original resorts lost patronage after horse racing in New York state was outlawed in 1909, but the amusement areas still saw significant patronage.:249 In 1915, the Sea Beach Line was upgraded to a subway line, followed by the other former excursion roads, and the opening of the Stillwell Avenue station in 1919 ushered in Coney Island's busiest era. On the busiest summer days, over a million people would travel to Coney Island. This created tensions between longtime New York City residents and more recent immigrants who liked to patronize Coney Island.:23 One of the entrepreneurs who took advantage of the increased visitor counts was Nathan Handwerker, who in 1916 started selling hot dogs at Coney Island for a nickel each, and eventually expanded his enterprise into the Nathan's Famous hot dog chain.:22–23
Coney Island's development as an amusement area continued through the end of World War II. The opening of the Wonder Wheel in 1920; the Riegelmann Boardwalk in 1923; the Shore Theater in 1925; several roller coasters in the 1920s including the Tornado, Thunderbolt, and Coney Island Cyclone; and the Parachute Jump in 1941 contributed to the area's quality as an amusement destination. In particular, the Riegelmann Boardwalk enabled the crowds to be dispersed away from Surf Avenue, the main west–east avenue in the area.:147:23–24 Despite staff shortages during World War II, Coney Island retained its popularity and was frequented by military personnel.
The era was also marked by frequent fires, and those at the beginning of the 20th century were particularly destructive. A 1907 fire at Steeplechase Park resulted in the park having to be completely rebuilt. Dreamland burned down in 1911 and was never rebuilt. One of the largest conflagrations at Coney Island, which occurred in 1932, left at least a thousand people homeless.
The early 20th century additionally saw the infilling of a portion of the 3-mile-long (4.8 km) Coney Island Creek, thereby connecting Coney Island to the rest of Brooklyn. In the previous decades, there had been plans to dredge and straighten the creek as a ship canal, which were later abandoned. By 1924, local landowners and the city had filled a portion of the creek.:337:200 A major section of the creek was further filled in to allow construction of the Belt Parkway in the 1930s, and the western and eastern ends of the island became peninsulas.:200 More fill was added in 1962 during the construction of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge.
Residential development and decline
Robert Moses era
In 1937, New York City parks commissioner Robert Moses published a report about the possible redevelopment of Coney Island, which would have entailed the addition of parking lots and reconstruction of part of the boardwalk. The city purchased a 400-foot-wide (120 m) strip of land along the shoreline, which would allow the boardwalk to be moved 300 feet (91 m) inland. At this point, Coney Island was so crowded on summer weekends that, according to Moses, a coffin would provide more space per person. Though ride construction was delayed due to material shortages caused by the onset of World War II, two new rides were constructed in 1946 at the end of the war.
In August 1944, Luna Park was destroyed by a fire. Two years later, it was closed permanently and sold to a company who wanted to tear down the park's remnants and build Quonset huts for military veterans and their families. Moses asked the city to transfer Luna Park's land along the Coney Island waterfront to the Parks Department, a request that was granted in 1949. Moses then had the land rezoned for residential use, with plans to demolish "about a third" of attractions along Surf Avenue, one block north of the beach, and replace these with housing. Moses moved the boardwalk back from the beach several yards, demolishing many structures, including the city's municipal bath house, as well as several blocks of amusements.:149 He claimed that fewer amusement-seekers were going to Coney Island every year, because they preferred places where they could bathe outdoors, such as Jones Beach State Park on Long Island, rather than the "mechanical gadget" attractions of Coney Island. Moses also announced that the Steeplechase Pier would be closed for a year so it could be renovated.
In 1953, Moses proposed that most of the peninsula be rezoned for various uses, claiming that it would be an "upgrade" over the various business and unrestricted zones that existed at the time. Steeplechase Park would be allowed to remain open, but much of the shorefront amusements and concessions would be replaced by residential developments. After many complaints from the public and from concession operators, the Estimate Board reinstated the area between West 22nd and West Eighth Streets as an amusement-only zone, with the zone extending 200 to 400 feet (61 to 122 m) inland from the shoreline. Moses's subsequent proposal to extend the Coney Island boardwalk east to Manhattan Beach was denied in 1955. A proposal to make the Quonset hut development into a permanent housing structure was also rejected.
A new building for the New York Aquarium was approved for construction in the neighborhood in 1953.:687 Construction started on the aquarium in 1954. The development of the new New York Aquarium was expected to revitalize Coney Island. By 1955, the area still included four children's amusement areas, five roller coasters, several flat and dark rides, and various other attractions such as the Wonder Wheel. The New York Aquarium's new site opened in June 1957. At this point, there were still several dozen rides on Coney Island.
Fred Trump era
During the summers of 1964 and 1965, there was a large decrease in the number of visitors to Coney Island because of the 1964/1965 World's Fair at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens. Crime increases, insufficient parking facilities, bad weather, and the post-World War II automotive boom were also cited as contributing factors in the visitor decrease. During the summer of 1964, concessionaires saw their lowest profits in a quarter-century. Ride operators reported that they had 30% to 90% fewer visitors in 1964 compared to the previous year.
A small amusement park called Astroland was announced for the boardwalk in 1962, to open the following year. Steeplechase Park, the last remaining large amusement park in Coney Island, closed permanently after the 1964 season.:172 The surrounding blocks were filled with amusement rides and concessions that were closed or about to close.:172 The rides at Steeplechase Park were auctioned off, and the property was sold to developer Fred Trump, who in 1965 announced that he wanted to build luxury apartments on the old Steeplechase property. At the time, residential developments on Coney Island in general were being built at a rapid rate. The peninsula, which had 34,000 residents in 1961, was expected to have more than double that number by the end of 1964. Many of the new residents moved into middle-income co-operative housing developments such as Trump Village, Warbasse Houses, and Luna Park Apartments; these replaced what The New York Times described as "a rundown sprawl of rickety houses". Developers were spending millions of dollars on new housing developments, and by 1966, the peninsula housed almost 100,000 people.
During 1966, developers tried to revitalize the Coney Island boardwalk as an amusement area. Trump destroyed Steeplechase Park's Pavilion of Fun during a highly publicized ceremony that September.:172 In its stead, Trump proposed building a 160-foot-high (49 m) enclosed dome with recreational facilities and a convention center, a plan supported by Brooklyn borough president Abe Stark. The next month, the city announced its plans to acquire the 125 acres (51 ha) of the former Steeplechase Park, a move that many residents supported but that Trump considered to be "wasteful". In January 1968, New York City parks commissioner August Heckscher II proposed that the New York state government build an "open-space" state park on the Steeplechase site, and that May, the New York City Board of Estimate voted in favor of funding to buy the land from Trump. Condemnation of the site started in 1969. The city ultimately purchased the proposed park's site for $4 million, with a stipulation blocking Trump from developing the site as apartments.
Trump filed a series of court cases related to the proposed residential rezoning, and ultimately won a $1.3 million judgment. The Steeplechase Park site laid empty for several years. Trump started subleasing the property to Norman Kaufman, who ran a small collection of fairground amusements called "Steeplechase Park" on part of the site.:172 The city also leased the boardwalk and parking lot sites at extremely low rates, which resulted in a $1 million loss of revenue over the following seven years. Since the city wanted to build the state park on the site of Kaufman's Steeplechase Park, it attempted to evict him by refusing to grant a lease extension.
Late-1970s attempts at restoration
The 1970s brought along further renewal plans, such as proposals to construct public housing, though the community was beset by social issues such as high crime and a drug epidemic. By 1975, the city was considering demolishing the Coney Island Cyclone in favor of an extension of the adjacent New York Aquarium.:153 The proposed demolition was controversial, and after a refurbishment by Astroland, the Cyclone reopened for the summer 1975 season. The abandoned Parachute Jump was left in situ, and the New York City Board of Estimate planned to tear down the structure.:174 In the meanwhile, Coney Island was still affected by a perception of crime and deterioration of old rides, but by the mid-1970s, middle-class families started returning to Coney Island following the implementation of a unified admission ticket to Coney Island's amusement areas.
The city continued to pursue litigation over the site occupied by Norman Kaufman, but for over a decade, was unsuccessful. It had no plan for the proposed state park, and in 1975 the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development nearly withdrew a proposed grant of $2 million to fund the proposed park. The city ultimately accepted the grant, though different city agencies still disagreed over whether to return the funds. Kaufman continued to operate the site until the end of summer 1980. The following June, the city paid Kaufman a million dollars for the rides, effectively evicting him, even though the amusements were estimated to be worth much less.
In 1979, the state announced that it would be conducting a report on the feasibility of legalizing gambling in New York State. Mayor Ed Koch proposed that the state open casinos in New York City to revitalize the area's economy. Residents and politicians supported the idea of building casinos at Coney Island, which they felt would alleviate its poverty, crime, and property vacancy rates. However, there was substantial controversy over the plans to place a gambling site in Coney Island. The state's interest in legalizing gambling had subsided by 1981, and the New York state legislature failed to take action on such proposal.
In an effort to reduce crime, the city also began demolishing abandoned bungalows on Coney Island. By 1982, the area was filled with vacant lots, though several residential developments were being planned for Coney Island. Having finally acquired Kaufman's rides, the New York City government began advertising for developers to redevelop the former amusement park area that November. The Mermaid-Neptune Development Corporation constructed three residential developments at the neighborhood's western edge, with a combined total of 430 units. These developments were completed through the mid-1980s. Even so, the area still suffered from drug-related killings and other crimes, especially west of West 20th Street. Former amusement structures such as the Parachute Jump lay unused, and prostitutes roamed around the neighborhood at night. Through the 1980s, prostitution and drug use in Coney Island increased, as did the area's murder and felony crime rate. By the late 1980s, deadly shootings were common, particularly in the low-income housing developments inside Coney Island. Commercial activity also decreased, and by 1990, storefronts on Mermaid Avenue had decreased by 90%, from over 400 stores before the urban renewal to 39 stores afterward.
Bullard deal, Sportsplex, and KeySpan Park
In the mid-1980s, restaurant mogul Horace Bullard proposed rebuilding Steeplechase Park.:150 On the site bounded by West 15th and 19th Streets between Surf Avenue and the boardwalk, Bullard wanted to build a $55 million amusement park based on the originals. The city agreed, and the project was approved in 1985.:150 Bullard planned to open the park by mid-1986 to coincide with the Statue of Liberty's centennial. However, the project was delayed while the New York City Planning Commission compiled an environmental impact report. By early 1987, the cost of the amusement park nearly doubled, to $100 million.
Concurrently, in December 1986, the New York State Urban Development Corporation formally proposed a 17,000-seat minor-league baseball stadium north of the boardwalk between West 19th and West 22nd Streets as well as 15,000-seat indoor arena north of the Abe Stark Rink. Negotiations were ongoing with the Mets and Yankees to ensure their support for the minor-league stadium. State senator Thomas Bartosiewicz attempted to block Bullard's plan, as he was part of a foundation that had promised another developer, Sportsplex, the right to build an amateur sports arena on the site. Construction was held up for another four years, and by 1989, Bullard and the city were ready to sign a contract that would allow the developer to construct a 60-ride amusement park on a 25-acre (10 ha) waterfront strip, which would be completed by 2002. Other proposals for the area included a $7.9 million restoration of the boardwalk, as well as a new high-school and college sports stadium.
Some of Coney Island's iconic rides were designated as official city landmarks during the late 1980s. In 1988, the Cyclone roller coaster was made a New York City designated landmark. This was followed by the Parachute Jump and the Wonder Wheel in 1989. The neighborhood's high crime rate had reversed slightly by the 1990s. However, Coney Island's relative isolation from the rest of New York City, along with its ethnic diversity, deprived the area of significant political power, and to a greater extent money.
After Rudy Giuliani took office as New York City mayor of New York in 1994, he negated the Bullard deal by approving the construction of a minor-league baseball stadium on the site allotted for Steeplechase Park.:150 Giuliani had wanted to build Sportsplex in order to improve sports facilities in the area, and to create a professional baseball team in Brooklyn. By the late 1990s, some $67 million had been secured for the development of Sportsplex. In 1997, developer Bruce Ratner proposed constructing a $100 million entertainment complex between West 9th and West 15th Streets, with a "virtual-reality amusement park" as well as a movie theater multiplex. Concurrently, a four-phase, 873-unit housing development in Coney Island was completed in 1996.
In 1998, Giuliani canceled Sportsplex and the entertainment complex, and instead unveiled another plan where only the parking lot would be built. The Sports Foundation had prepared another proposal that would allow a scaled-down Sportsplex to be built next to the minor-league baseball stadium. The minor league team was called the Brooklyn Cyclones, though naming rights to the stadium were sold to Keyspan Energy. Bullard, now no longer rebuilding Steeplechase Park, had wanted to restore the Thunderbolt as part of a scaled-down amusement park, but it was demolished instead.:150 In 2000, the city approved the $31 million project to construct Keyspan Park using the funds from the canceled Sportsplex, and the minor-league baseball stadium opened the following year. Other major projects at the time included the reconstruction of Coney Island's sewers and the refurbishment of the Stillwell Avenue subway station, the latter of which was completed in 2005.
Thor Equities ownership and rezoning proposals
In 2003, Mayor Michael Bloomberg took an interest in revitalizing Coney Island as a possible site for the New York City bid of the 2012 Summer Olympics. A plan was developed by the Astella Development Corporation. When the city lost the Olympic bid, the plans were passed to the Coney Island Development Corporation (CIDC), which made modified plans. Shortly before the CIDC's plans were to be publicly released, a development company named Thor Equities purchased all of Bullard's 168,000-square-foot (15,600 m2) western property for $13 million, later selling the property to Taconic Investment Partners for over $90 million.:158 Taconic now had 100 acres (40 ha), on which it planned to build 2,000 apartment units.:158–159 Thor then went about using much of its $77 million profit to purchase property on Stillwell Avenue for well over market value, and offered to buy out every piece of property inside the traditional amusement area.:158–159
In September 2005, Thor's founder, Joe Sitt, unveiled his new plans for a large Bellagio-style hotel resort with a timeshare development, surrounded by rides and amusements. The CIDC report suggested adding year-round commercial and amusement area, and recommended that property north of Surf Avenue and west of Abe Stark Rink could be rezoned for other uses, including residential. Sitt, a resident of the area, spent more than $100 million to buy land in Coney Island. Astroland owner Carol Hill Albert, whose husband's family had owned the park since its 1962 opening, sold the site to Thor in November 2006. Two months later, Thor released renderings for a $1.5 billion amusement park, entertainment complex, and indoor water park called Coney Island Park.
In 2007, the DCP started circulating a rezoning plan that would cover 47 acres (19 ha) of Coney Island. The city would spend $120 million to redevelop 15 acres (6.1 ha) into an amusement park surrounded by around 5,000 new housing units. The Aquarium was also planning a renovation in conjunction with the rezoning. The city's and Sitt's proposals directly conflicted: Sitt wanted to build housing inside the amusement park, while the city's rezoning would create a special amusement district where residential development was forbidden. In April 2008, because of objections from land owners, residents, and developers, the city revised its rezoning proposal. Only 9 acres would be used as an amusement park, while private owners and developers could build on the rest of the land as long as they followed the DCP's general master plan. While the city negotiated with Thor, Sitt evicted several amusement operators on his land, including Astroland, in the expectation that he would soon be able to redevelop it.
The DCP certified the rezoning plan in January 2009, which allowed the city to create a 9.4-acre (3.8 ha) amusement district. At the time, Thor Equities said it hoped to complete the project by 2011. In June 2009, the city's planning commission approved the construction of 4,500 units of housing, including 900 affordable units, and promised to preserve affordable housing already in the neighborhood. Subsequently, the city government paid Sitt $95.6 million for 7 acres (2.8 ha) of land. The nonprofit civic group Municipal Art Society wanted the city-operated park to be larger, though the city was reluctant to spend so much money.
Progress on expansion
The Zipper and Spider on West 12th Street were closed permanently and dismantled in September 2007 after its owner lost his lease. The same year, plans to restore Coney Island's historic B&B Carousell were revealed. After Astroland closed in 2008, it was replaced by a new Dreamland in 2009 and by a new Luna Park in 2010. In April 2011, the first new roller coasters to be built at Coney Island in eighty years were opened as part of efforts to reverse the decline of the amusement area. The B&B Carousell reopened in 2013 at Luna Park. The Thunderbolt steel roller coaster, named after the original wooden coaster on the site, was opened in June 2014. Furthermore, a live performance venue, the Ford Amphitheater at Coney Island, opened on the boardwalk in 2016.
In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused major damage to the Coney Island amusement parks, the Aquarium, and businesses. Despite this, the Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest was held the following summer, as usual. Luna Park at Coney Island reopened as scheduled on March 24, 2013. Rebuilding of the aquarium started in early 2013, and a major expansion of the aquarium opened in summer 2018.
In August 2018, the NYCEDC and NYC Parks announced that Luna Park would be expanded between West 15th and West 16th Streets, next to the Thunderbolt. There would be a public plaza and an amusement arcade within the newly expanded amusement area. The same month, it was also announced that a 50-room boutique hotel was being planned for Coney Island within the former Shore Theater on Surf and Stillwell Avenues. The city also expressed its intent to demolish the Abe Stark Rink and redevelop the site, as per the 2009 rezoning, though residents wanted NYC Parks to retain control over the site rather than sell it off to a private developer. Many of these construction projects were placed on hold in 2020 with the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. That year, the businesses and amusement parks at Coney Island either operated in a sharply reduced capacity or did not open at all.
The addition of new amusements coincided with the development of over 2,000 new residential units on empty lots, through the early 2020s. These included a 1,000-unit mega-development and a 40-story, 522-unit residential tower that would be the tallest in southern Brooklyn.
Oral history archive
In 2004, the Coney Island History Project began collecting stories of Coney Island from longtime residents. The CIHP records, archives, and shares oral history interviews about Coney Island. The organizations conducts interviews in English, Russian, Chinese, and Spanish. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the CIHP continued to record interviews via phone or Skype. As of 2020[update] over 370 interviews were available online via the Coney Island History Project Oral History Archive.
Amusement parks and attractions
Coney Island has two amusement parks, Luna Park and Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, as well as several rides that are not incorporated into either amusement park. These are owned and managed by several different companies and operate independently of each other. Coney Island also has several other visitor attractions such as skeeball and ball tossing, as well as a sideshow, that contains shooting, throwing, and tossing skills. The area hosts renowned events as well. Coney Island's amusement area is one of a few in the United States that is not mostly owned by any one entity.:153
Coney Island contains three rides with landmark status. One is a New York City designated landmark, another is listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), and a third is both a city landmark and a NRHP-listed landmark.
The Wonder Wheel, opened in 1920, is a steel Ferris wheel with both stationary cars and rocking cars that slide along a track. It holds 144 riders, stands 150 ft (46 m) tall, weighs over 200 short tons (180 long tons; 180 t), and is located at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park.:47 The Wonder Wheel was made a city landmark in 1989.:1
The B&B Carousell (as spelled by the frame's builder, William F. Mangels) is Coney Island's last traditional carousel, near the old entrance to Luna Park. The carousel was built circa 1906–1909 with a traditional roll-operated fairground organ. It was relocated multiple times, most recently to Luna Park's Steeplechase Plaza in 2013, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.
The Coney Island Cyclone, opened in 1927, is one of the United States' oldest wooden roller coasters still in operation. The Cyclone includes an 85 ft (26 m), 58-degree drop. It is owned by the City of New York, and is operated by Luna Park under a franchise agreement. The Cyclone was made a city landmark in 1988:1 and was listed on the NRHP in 1991. The Cyclone is New York City's only remaining wooden coaster and is considered "irreplaceable", since timber-supported coasters can no longer be built under modern city building codes.
There are also multiple other rides in Coney Island. In March 2014, construction started on the new Thunderbolt, a steel roller coaster that was manufactured by Zamperla at a cost of $10 million. The ride features 2,000 feet (610 m) of track, a height of 125 feet (38 m), and a top speed of 65 miles per hour (105 km/h), as well as four inversions. The Thunderbolt opened in June 2014.
There are also multiple bumper car rides in Coney Island, all operated separately. As of 2019[update], these include an attraction in Deno's Wonder Wheel Park, as well as Eldorado Auto Skooter on Surf Avenue. Historically, the earliest bumper car rides were located in Coney Island. Furthermore, two traditional dark ride haunted houses operate at Coney Island: Spook-a-Rama at Deno's, and Ghost Hole on West 12th Street adjacent to Deno's.
Coney Island has had three major amusement parks in its past—Steeplechase Park (1897–1964), Luna Park (1903–1944), and Dreamland (1904–1911)—as well as several standalone attractions.:74 In addition, Astroland operated at the site of the current Luna Park from 1962 to 2008, while a second Dreamland only operated for the 2009 season.
In addition to the rides in Coney Island's former amusement parks, there were also several dozen roller coasters that are now defunct. The Comet, next to the Cyclone's current site, was built in 1921 and destroyed in 1945.:46 Another coaster, the Oriental Scenic Railway, was created by LaMarcus Adna Thompson in 1887,:98–99:41 and was demolished in 1955 to be replaced with a "hot rod" amusement ride. The steeplechase roller coaster, created by Steeplechase Park operator George C. Tilyou in 1897, consisted of people riding wooden horses around the park on a steel track. The original wooden Thunderbolt coaster, located between West 15th and West 16th Streets, was constructed in 1925, closed in 1983, and torn down in 2000 during the construction of nearby Keyspan Park. Nearby was Tornado, a wooden coaster constructed in 1926,:24 and destroyed by arson in 1977.
Coney Island also contains one defunct ride that is still standing, the Parachute Jump. Originally built as the Life Savers Parachute Jump at the 1939 New York World's Fair, this was the first ride of its kind. Patrons were hoisted 262 ft (80 m) in the air before being allowed to drop using guy-wired parachutes. The Parachute Jump was closed in the 1960s, but was officially preserved, having been listed on the NRHP in 1980 and made a city landmark in 1989.:1
There is a broad public sand beach that starts at Sea Gate at West 37th Street, through the central Coney Island area and Brighton Beach, to the beginning of the community of Manhattan Beach, a distance of approximately 2.7 mi (4.3 km). The beach is continuous and is served for its entire length by the broad Riegelmann Boardwalk. Numerous amusements, as well as the aquarium and a variety of food shops and arcades, are directly accessible from the landward side of the boardwalk. The boardwalk in Manhattan Beach, located within Manhattan Beach Park, is not connected with the Riegelmann Boardwalk.
The beaches in Coney Island used to be private until 1923 when the city bought all the land on the waterfront and created the Riegelmann Boardwalk and Beach. Today, only the sand beach inside Sea Gate is private; it is accessible solely to residents of that community.
The public beaches are maintained on a regular basis by the city. Because sand no longer naturally deposits on the beach, it is replenished in regular beach nourishment projects using dredged sand. The public beaches are open and free to use, though the boardwalk is closed during nights from 1 to 5 a.m. The beach area is divided into several sections by rock groynes that were built in the 1920s to prevent erosion.:15
There are several clubs that host activities on Coney Island's beach. The Coney Island Polar Bear Club consists of a group of people who swim at Coney Island throughout the winter months. Their most popular event is an annual swim on New Year's Day.:50 The beach also serves as the training grounds for the Coney Island Brighton Beach Open Water Swimmers, a group dedicated to promoting open water swimming, which hosts several open water swim races each year.
There are several public parks in Coney Island, operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Parks within the main Coney Island neighborhood include:
- The Abe Stark Skating Rink, located on the south side of Surf Avenue between West 19th and West 20th Streets, adjacent to the boardwalk. It opened in 1970.
- Coney Island Creek Park, located along the south shore of Coney Island Creek. Opened in 1984, it is composed mostly of plants.
- Leon S. Kaiser Park, located on the northern side of Neptune Avenue between West 24th and West 32nd Streets, and contains playgrounds, athletic facilities, fitness equipment, and open spaces for barbecuing.
- Poseidon Playground, located along the beach between West 25th and West 27th Streets, and contains water spray showers, playgrounds, and handball courts.
- Steeplechase Park, located along the beach between West 16th and West 19th Streets. It contains a public plaza with seating, as well as MCU Park, a minor league baseball stadium.
- Surf Playground, located on the south side of Surf Avenue between West 25th and West 27th Streets, just north of Poseidon Playground. It contains basketball courts, playgrounds, and water spray showers.
The New York Aquarium opened in 1957 on the former site of the Dreamland amusement park. It is located on 602 Surf Avenue between West 5th and West 10th Streets. As of 2018[update], the New York Aquarium consists of five exhibits: Aquatheater; Conservation Hall; Sea Cliffs; Sharks, Rays & Turtles; and Ocean Wonders: Sharks. The original Bathysphere, a deep-sea submersible that made historic journeys underwater in the 1930s, is on display at the aquarium.
KeySpan Park, located on the former site of Steeplechase Park, opened in 2001. It hosts the Brooklyn Cyclones minor league baseball team. In 2010, it was renamed after the Municipal Credit Union (MCU), the city's largest credit union, in an eleven-year naming rights deal.
In June 2016, the Ford Amphitheater at Coney Island opened on the boardwalk to the west of MCU Park, hosting several live musical acts as well as other events. It was constructed at the location of the Childs Restaurant, which was originally constructed in 1923 and was renovated when the amphitheater was being constructed. The rooftop part of the restaurant reopened in July 2016.
The nonprofit organization Coney Island USA also operates the Coney Island Museum, a collection of memorabilia that chronicles the history of the neighborhood. The museum opened in 1980, and is located at 1208 Surf Avenue near the intersection with West 12th Street. It charges a $5 admission fee per adult. Another nonprofit founded in 2004, the Coney Island History Project, operates a space near the Wonder Wheel.
Coney Island USA sponsors various seasonal acts every year. In April, the organization hosts the Noisefest and the Congress of Curious Peoples. This is followed in May or June by the Coney Island Mermaid Parade, which takes place on Surf Avenue and the boardwalk, and features floats and performances. During August or September, Coney Island USA produces the Beard and Moustache Competition; Tattoo and Motorcycle Festival; and Coney Island Film Festival. The organization then hosts the Creepshow at the Freakshow, an interactive Halloween-themed event, in October.
A major national volleyball tournament hosted by the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP), which is typically hosted on the West Coast of the U.S., was held in Coney Island starting in 2006. The AVP built a 4,000-seat stadium and twelve outer courts next to the boardwalk for the event. The tournament returned to Coney Island from 2007 through 2009, but was not hosted at Coney Island in 2010 due to a lack of money. When AVP tournaments resumed in Brooklyn in 2015, they were hosted at Brooklyn Bridge Park instead.
In 2009, the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus performed in Coney Island for the first time since 1956. The event, titled The Coney Island Boom-A-Ring, was housed in tents that were located between the boardwalk and Surf Avenue. The following year, they returned to the same location with The Coney Island Illuscination.
In May 2015, Thor Equities unveiled Coney Art Walls, a public art wall project curated by former Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles director Jeffrey Deitch and Thor CEO Joe Sitt. Located at 3050 Stillwell Avenue, the project featured work from more than 30 artists. The exhibition started being held annually through at least 2019.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of Coney Island and Sea Gate was 31,965, a decrease of 2,302 (6.7%) from the 34,267 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 851.49 acres (344.59 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 37.5 inhabitants per acre (24,000/sq mi; 9,300/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 32.2% (10,307) African American, 30.9% (9,880) White, 8.7% (2,793) Asian, 0.2% (78) Native American, 0.0% (4) Pacific Islander, 0.2% (67) from other races, and 1.5% (467) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.2% (8,369) of the population. 82% of the population were high school graduates and 40% had a bachelor's degree or higher.:2
The entirety of Community Board 13 had 106,459 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 80.4 years.:2, 20 This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.:53 (PDF p. 84) Most inhabitants are adults, with 25% between the ages of 25–44, 27% between 45 and 64, and 22% who are at least 65 years old. The ratio of young and college-aged residents was lower, at 19% and 8%, respectively.:2 Coney Island's elderly population, as a share of the area's total population, is higher than in other New York City neighborhoods.:6
As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 13 was $39,213. In 2018, an estimated 24% of Coney Island residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in eight residents (11%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 55% in Coney Island, slightly higher than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51%, respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], Coney Island is not considered to be gentrifying.:7
Politically, Coney Island is in New York's 8th congressional district. It is also in the New York State Senate's 23rd district, the New York State Assembly's 46th district, and the New York City Council's 47th district.
Police and crime
The 60th Precinct ranked 34th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. Between 1993 and 2010, major crimes decreased by 72%, including a 76% decrease in robberies, 71% decrease in felony assaults, and 67% decrease in shootings. As of 2018[update], with a non-fatal assault rate of 51 per 100,000 people, Coney Island's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 168 per 100,000 people is about the same as that of the city as a whole.:8 The 60th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 84.6% between 1990 and 2019. The precinct reported 6 murders, 18 rapes, 121 robberies, 252 felony assaults, 85 burglaries, 425 grand larcenies, and 39 grand larcenies auto in 2019.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) operates two firehouses in the area. Engine Company 318/Ladder Company 166 is located at 2510 Neptune Avenue. It contains the Coney Island Fire Station Pumping Station, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Engine Company 245/Ladder Company 161/Battalion 43 is located at 2929 West 8th Street. In addition, FDNY EMS Station 43 is on the grounds of Coney Island Hospital.
As of 2018[update], preterm births and births to teenage mothers are slightly more common in Coney Island than in other places citywide. In Coney Island, there were 95 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 20.2 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), slightly higher than in the median neighborhood.:11 Coney Island has a high population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 14%, which is higher than the citywide rate of 12%.:14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Coney Island is 0.0067 milligrams per cubic metre (6.7×10−9 oz/cu ft), lower than the citywide and boroughwide averages.:9 Nineteen percent of Coney Island residents are smokers, which is higher the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.:13 In Coney Island, 28% of residents are obese, 15% are diabetic, and 31% have high blood pressure—higher than the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.:16 In addition, 18% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.:12
Ninety-two percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 70% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," lower than the city's average of 78%.:13 For every supermarket in Coney Island, there are 21 bodegas.:10 The primary hospital in the neighborhood is Coney Island Hospital.:6
Post offices and ZIP Codes
Coney Island's primary ZIP Code is 11224, though small portions located east of West 1st Street and Ocean Parkway are located in ZIP Code 11235. There are two United States Post Office branches in Coney Island. The Coney Island Station is located at 2727 Mermaid Avenue, and the Neptune Station is located at 532 Neptune Avenue.
Coney Island generally has a similar ratio of college-educated residents to the rest of the city as of 2018[update]. While 45% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 18% have less than a high school education and 37% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher.:6 The percentage of Coney Island students excelling in math has been increasing, though reading achievement has declined; math achievement rose from 53 percent in 2000 to 72 percent in 2011, but reading achievement fell from 57 to 55 percent within the same time period.
Coney Island's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is higher than the rest of New York City. In Coney Island, 26% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, compared to the citywide average of 20% of students.:24 (PDF p. 55):7
Elementary, middle, and high schools
Coney Island is served by the New York City Department of Education, and students in the neighborhood are automatically "zoned" into the nearest public schools. The zoned schools for the main portion of Coney Island include:
- PS 90 Edna Cohen School (grades K-5)
- PS 100 Coney Island School (grades K-5)
- PS 188 The Michael E. Berdy School (grades K-4)
- PS/IS 288 The Shirley Tanyhill School (grades PK-8)
- IS 303 Herbert S. Eisenberg (grades 6–8)
- PS 329 (grades PK-5)
IS 239, the Mark Twain School for the Gifted and Talented (6–8), is a magnet school for gifted students, and it accepts students from around the city. In 2006, David Scharfenberg of The New York Times said, "Coney Island's elementary schools are a mixed lot, with only some exceeding citywide averages on the state's testing regimen."
All New York City high school students can go to any high school in the city. There are two public high schools in Coney Island: Abraham Lincoln High School and Rachel Carson High School for Coastal Studies.
The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL)'s Coney Island branch is located at 1901 Mermaid Avenue, near the intersection with West 19th Street. It opened in 1911 as an unmanned deposit station. Ten years later, it moved to the former Coney Island Times offices and became fully staffed. In 1954 another branch was built. According to BPL's website, the library was referred to as "the first-ever library built on stilts over the Atlantic Ocean." The branch was rebuilt in 2013 after being damaged in Hurricane Sandy.
Coney Island is served by four New York City Subway stations. The Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue station, the terminal of the D, F, <F>, N, and Q trains, is one of the largest elevated rapid transit stations in the world, with eight tracks serving four platforms. The entire station, built in 1917–1920 as a replacement for the former surface-level Culver Depot, was rebuilt in 2001–2004. The other subway stations within Coney Island are West Eighth Street–New York Aquarium, served by the F, <F>, and Q trains; Neptune Avenue, served by the F and <F> trains; and Ocean Parkway, served by the Q train.
A bus terminal beneath the Stillwell Avenue station serves the B68 to Prospect Park, the B74 to Sea Gate, the B64 to Bay Ridge, and the B82 to Starrett City. Additionally, the B36 runs from Sea Gate to Sheepshead Bay. The X28 and X38 provide express bus service to Manhattan.
The three main west–east arteries in the neighborhood are (from north to south) Neptune Avenue, Mermaid Avenue, and Surf Avenue. Neptune Avenue becomes Emmons Avenue at Sheepshead Bay, while Surf Avenue becomes Ocean Parkway and then runs north toward Prospect Park. The north–south cross streets in Coney Island are numbered, with "West" prepended to their numbers. The street numbers run from West 1st Street at Coney Island's eastern border to West 37th Street at the western border, adjacent to Sea Gate.
Coney Island contains several bicycle paths. The Ocean Parkway bicycle path terminates in the neighborhood, while the Shore Parkway bike path (part of the Brooklyn Waterfront Greenway) runs east along Jamaica Bay and west and north along New York Harbor. On-street bike lanes are marked in Neptune Avenue and other streets in Coney Island. In addition, the Riegelmann Boardwalk is open to cyclists during the daytime, though bicycling hours are restricted during the summer months.
The western part of Coney Island is expected to be served by NYC Ferry's Coney Island route beginning in 2021.
In popular culture
Coney Island has been featured in many novels, films, television shows, cartoons, and theatrical plays.:176 This is linked to its iconic status as a vacation destination. Various slapstick comedies and films have been set at Coney Island or allude to it. There have also been several television documentaries about the area's history.:137–142
- "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
- "NYPD – 60th Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2.
- Kadinsky, Sergey (2016). Hidden Waters of New York City: A History and Guide to 101 Forgotten Lakes, Ponds, Creeks, and Streams in the Five Boroughs. New York, NY: Countryman Press. ISBN 978-1-58157-566-8.
- "Geology of the New York City Region". www.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Chapter 17, Southern Brooklyn" (PDF). A Stronger, More Resilient New York. City of New York. 2013. pp. 335–364. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Dornhelm, Richard B. (September 25, 2003). The Coney Island Public Beach and Boardwalk Improvement of 1923. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. doi:10.1061/40682(2003)6. ISBN 978-0-7844-0682-3.
- "Kaiser Park : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. October 16, 2004. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Coney Island Creek Park : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Zipcode 11224". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
- Solomon, Steve (1999). Coney Island. Baltimore, MD: Top Hat Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-912509-08-2. OCLC 42191804.
- Brooklyn before the bridge: American paintings from the Long Island Historical Society. Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn Museum. 1982. p. 54. Retrieved October 20, 2019 – via HathiTrust.
- Pritchard, Evan (2002). Native New Yorkers : the legacy of the Algonquin people of New York. San Francisco: Council Oak Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-57178-107-9. OCLC 46937559.
- Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon: Henry Hudson and the Voyage that Redrew the Map of the New World. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-60819-098-0.
- Schwartz, Seymour I.; Ehrenberg, Ralph E. (1980). The mapping of America. H.N. Abrams. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-81091-307-3. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Coney Island". American Experience. PBS. February 4, 1991. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Boyle, James (1939). Official Brooklyn Guide Book ... Henin. OCLC 3632212.
- McGowan, Joe (2015). Sligo Folk Tales. New York: The History Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-84588-836-7. OCLC 920024400.
- Sijs van der, Nicoline (2009). Cookies, Coleslaw, and Stoops: The Influence of Dutch on the North American Languages. p. 51. ISBN 978-9-08964-124-3.
- "The Atlantic World: Dutch Place Names". The Dutch in America, 1609–1664. The Library of Congress. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- Stimpson, George W. (1992). Why Do Some Shoes Squeak? and 568 Other Popular Questions Answered. Wings Books. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-517-45574-6.
- Benson, Egbert; New-York Historical Society (1825). Memoir Read Before the Historical Society of the State of New-York, December 31, 1816. Henry C. Sleight. p. 26.
- Stockwell, A.P.; Stillwell, W.H. (1884). A History of the Town of Gravesend, N.Y. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Pritchard, E.T. (2002). Native New Yorkers: The Legacy of the Algonquin People of New York. Council Oak Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-57178-107-9. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Douglass, Harvey (March 23, 1933). "Coney Island Scenes Shift, Never Change". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved March 23, 2016 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- Currie, George (August 10, 1936). "Passed in Review". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 14. Retrieved July 21, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- Ierardi, Eric (2001). Gravesend, the home of Coney Island. Charleston, S.C: Arcadia. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7385-2361-3. OCLC 51632931.
- "Coney Island History – Early History". Heart of Coney Island.
- "Jamaica Ditch". Coney Island History Project. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Roosevelt, Edith Kermit (June 1, 1957). "Coney Isle Fishing For Way to Regain Its Lost Glamour" (PDF). Buffalo Evening News. Retrieved July 26, 2018 – via fultonhistory.com.
- "Yellowed Pages of Coney Island Register Reveal Visits of Many Great and Near-Great of Day". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. March 5, 1939. p. 11. Retrieved July 21, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- Phalen, William (2016). Coney Island : 150 years of rides, fires, floods, the rich, the poor and finally Robert Moses. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-9816-1. OCLC 933438460.
- "American Experience. Coney Island. People & Events". PBS. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Berman, John S.; Museum of the City of New York (2003). Coney Island. Portraits of America. Barnes and Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-3887-0. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Travel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. June 9, 1864. p. 1.
"Another New Rail Road". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. June 9, 1864. p. 2.
- "Brighton Beach History". Our Brooklyn. Brooklyn Public Library. August 30, 1936. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Cudahy, Brian J. (2009). How We Got to Coney Island: The Development of Mass Transportation in Brooklyn and Kings County. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-2211-7. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Cross, G.; Walton, J.K. (2005). The Playful Crowd: Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-231-50283-2. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- Stanton, Jeffrey (1997). "Coney Island — Luxury Hotels". Coney Island History Site. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Weinstein, Stephen (2000). "Brighton Beach". In Jackson, Kenneth T.; Keller, Lisa; Flood, Nancy (eds.). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New York, NY, and New Haven, CT, USA: The New York Historical Society and Yale University Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-300-11465-6. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "The Real Brighton Beach". The New Yorker. March 29, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Williams, Keith. "Brighton Beach: Old World mentality, New World reality". The Weekly Nabe. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- "Engeman's New Bathing Hotel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1878. p. 1. Retrieved July 23, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- Stern, Robert A. M.; Gilmartin, Gregory; Massengale, John Montague (1983). New York 1900: Metropolitan Architecture and Urbanism, 1890-1915. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-0511-5. OCLC 9829395.
- Feinman, Mark S. (February 17, 2001). "Early Rapid Transit in Brooklyn, 1878–1913". nycsubway.org. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Another Coney Island Railroad – Opening of the Brooklyn and Flatbush Line to Brighton Beach". The New York Times. July 2, 1878. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "The Upper-Class Brooklyn Resorts of the Victorian Era". Curbed NY. June 27, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Wilderness Made Prosperous By One Man's Vision and Daring". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 11, 1954. p. 7. Retrieved July 23, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- "Opening Reception at the Oriental Hotel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 3, 1880. p. 3. Retrieved July 23, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- "Obituary 1 – No Title". The New York Times. July 13, 1906. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: the people's playground (illustrated ed.). Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3138-0.
- Judith N. DeSena; Timothy Shortell (2012). The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City. Lexington Books. pp. 147–176. ISBN 978-0-7391-6670-3.
- David A. Sullivan. "Coney Island History: How 'West Brighton' became Modern-day Coney Island". heartofconeyisland.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "Sea Gate and Sheepshead". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 6, 1899. p. 16. Retrieved July 21, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- "Quest for Rural Homes – Toilers of Greater New York to Gain by Long Island Rapid Transit – Twenty Minutes to Jamaica – Pretty Suburban Villas Springing Up in Anticipation of the Proposed Atlantic Avenue Tunnel -Grass and Air for All". The New York Times. May 16, 1897. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- J.B.T. (August 14, 1898). "Sea Gate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Kasson, J.F. (2011). Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4299-5223-1.
- Parascandola, L.J. (2014). A Coney Island Reader: Through Dizzy Gates of Illusion. Columbia University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-231-53819-0. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Matus, Paul. "The New BMT Coney Island Terminal". The Third Rail Online. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
- "Coney – Carousel List". Westland Network. August 27, 1997. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- David A. Sullivan. "Coney Island History: The Elephant Hotel and Roller Coaster (1885–1896)". www.heartofconeyisland.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "On This Day in History, March 1: Brooklyn's Answer to Boss Tweed". Brooklyn Eagle. February 1, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- "Remembering Parks Past". The New York Times. July 7, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- ""The Face of Steeplechase" at the Coney Island History Project". Brooklyn Paper. May 30, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Luna Park First Night – Coney Island Visitors Dazzled by Electric City – Many Colored Illuminations and Canals – A Midway of Nations and a Trip to the Moon Replace the Old-Time Recreations". The New York Times. May 17, 1903. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- "New Coney Dazzles Its Record Multitude – Luna Park and Dreamland the Centres of Great Crush – 250,000 Persons at Island – Novel and Costly Shows, with the Frankfurter and Peanut as Reminders of By-Gone Days". The New York Times. May 15, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- "Coney Island Boardwalk – Much Opposition to the Bill for a Public Recreation Ground". The New York Times. February 27, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- "Coney Island Realty Settlement". The New York Times. July 24, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Lindheim, Burton (June 27, 1943). "CONEY HAS A WAR BOOM; There Are Priorities, Shortages and the Dimout, but the Subway Is Convenient". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "Early Coney Fires Razed Large Areas – Dreamland Was Burned in 1911 With Damage Estimated at More Than $5,000,000 – Steeplechase Fire in 1907 – Loss Kept Down to $1,500,000 When Wind Shifted – In 1908 Flames Destroyed Two Hotels". The New York Times. July 14, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "$3,000,000 Fire Sweeps Over Coney Island". Elmira Star-Gazette. July 14, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved July 12, 2019 – via newspapers.com .
- "Coney Swept by $1,500,000 Fire – Steeplechase Park and Blocks of Flimsy Bowery Buildings in Ruins – Starts in Cave of Winds – Eats Over 35 Acres of Wooden Structures – Checked at Stauch's Brick Hotel – One May Die; Dozen Hurt – Many Uninsured Business Men Ruined – Tilyou, Chief Loser, Takes It Bravely – Coney's Gayety Is Unchecked". The New York Times. July 29, 1907. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Investigating Fire at Coney; No More Tinsel Buildings". Brooklyn Citizen. July 29, 1907. pp. 1, 10 – via newspapers.com .
- "The Lambs' Gambol – Brooklyn Amusements – Greater Dreamland, Opening Steeplechase Park". The New York Times. May 16, 1909. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Rang 'Two Nines' for Dreamland Fire – First Time the Call Ever Was Sounded for a Fire in Brooklyn Borough – What the Signal Means – Called Out 33 Companies and 250 Men – Longest Run Was More Than Nine Miles – Great Race to the Sea". The New York Times. June 4, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "1,000 Are Made Homeless – One of Resort's Worst Fires Razes Section of Boardwalk – Blaze Starts in Rubbish – Burns District Between 21st and 24th Streets – Shift in 40-Mile Wind Saves Large Area – Flames Visible for Miles – 500 Receive First-Aid – Police Rush Help to the Destitute – Manhattan Sends Apparatus". The New York Times. July 14, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- Lamb, Jonah Owen (August 6, 2006). "The Ghost Ships of Coney Island Creek (Published 2006)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- Moses, Robert (1937). Improvement of Coney Island, Rockaway and South Beaches. Retrieved July 26, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
- "Mayor Ready to Remodel Coney, Asks Moses for Revised Plan; Indicates He Favors Reconstruction of Resort on Broader Scale Than 1937 Proposal – Says Demand for Recreation Has Changed Mayor for Broad Plan Mayor's Letter to Moses Held Up by Lack of Funds". The New York Times. June 25, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Face Lifted, Coney Awaits Old Gang – Amusement Owners Put Paint on the Rides and Trot Out a Few New Super-Thrillers". The New York Times. May 5, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Half of Luna Park Destroyed by Fire as 750,000 Watch – Flames Sweep Over 8-Acre Area and Cause $500,000 Loss in 1 1/2-Hour Battle". The New York Times. August 13, 1944. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Coney's Old Luna Park Will Yield To New Homes for 625 GI Families – Luna Park to Bow to Homes for GI's". The New York Times. August 18, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "New Parking Lots Planned by Moses – 25-Cent Fee Would Be Charged for Facilities at Coney Island and Rockaway Beach". The New York Times. August 18, 1949. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Public Seen Tiring of Coney Gimmicks – Moses Says People Are Turning to Places Like Jones Beach as Against 'Gadget' Resorts – Long Beach 'A Warning' – Commissioner Advises Jersey Group Not to Commercialize Sandy Hook Project". The New York Times. October 6, 1949. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Steeplechase Pier Plan – Closing in Summer Slated for $190,000 Rebuilding". The New York Times. April 7, 1949. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Moses Asks Coney Island Rezoning To 'Upgrade' It as Residential Area – Rezoning Sought for Coney Island". The New York Times. April 2, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Salerno, Al (October 24, 1954). "Break Ground for World's Greatest Aquarium at Coney Island". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 21 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- "Amusement Area in Coney Exempt – Estimate Board Votes Exclusion From Rezoning of a Section North of the Boardwalk". The New York Times. June 12, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Greenbaum, Clarence (June 12, 1953). "That Hot Dog Flavor To Remain at Coney". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 1. Retrieved July 27, 2018 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
- "Coney Extension Denied to Moses – Estimate Board Rejects His Plan to Join Boardwalk With Manhattan Beach – Residents Protest It – Their Willingness to Pay for Restoring Own Esplanade Spurs Unanimous Vote". The New York Times. September 23, 1955. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Planners Oppose Housing at Beach – Reject Proposal for Municipal Operation of Ex-G. I. Units – Ask Quick Shift to Park – Weigh Rezoning for TV – N.B.C. Ties Favorable Vote on Flatbush Studio to Location of Its Color Operations". The New York Times. May 28, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3. OCLC 834874.
- "Plan of Aquarium at Coney Island Approved – Estimate Board Appropriates $450,000 for First Stage – Work Starts in Spring". The New York Times. October 23, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Coney Girds for '55; Aquarium Progressing. Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. January 29, 1955. p. 63. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "History of the New York Aquarium". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. May 31, 1934. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Phillips, McCandlish (April 13, 1966). "Return of Coney Island; Amusement Area, Badly Hurt Last Year, Is Attempting to Win Back Customers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "Coney Island Slump Grows Worse; Decline in Business Since the War Years Has Been Steady". The New York Times. July 2, 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "High Tower in Park to Rise at Coney". The New York Times. September 13, 1962. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
- Chan, Sewell (July 21, 2005). "Leaps of Imagination for the Parachute Jump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Steeplechase Park Planned as the Site Of Housing Project". The New York Times. July 1, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Kaufman, Michael T. (March 19, 1964). "Housing and Amusements Give Coney Island a Dual Place in the Sun". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "6 Bikinied Beauties Attend Demolishing Of Coney Landmark". The New York Times. September 22, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "A 160-Foot-High Pleasure Dome Is Proposed for Coney Island; A Dome Proposed for Coney Island". The New York Times. July 24, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Fowle, Farnsworth (October 5, 1966). "City Wants Site of Steeplechase For Seafront Coney Island Park; Planning Board Sets Oct. 19 Hearing to Bar Area for High-Rise Homes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Roberts, Steven V. (October 20, 1966). "A Park Is Backed for Coney Island – Developer Who Bought Site Calls Plan Wasteful". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Clark, Alfred E. (January 6, 1968). "State Is Urged to Build a Park At Coney Island's Steeplechase". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Bennett, Charles G. (May 23, 1968). "Park Usage Voted for Steeplechase – City to Seek $2-Million Aid to Buy Coney Island Tract". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Glave, Judie (September 2, 1990). "Coney Island stages a comeback". The Journal-News. White Plains, NY. pp. 68, 69, 70 – via newspapers.com .
- Fowler, Glenn (June 3, 1979). "15‐Year Dispute Over Lease for Coney Island Steeplechase Continues". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Carmody, Deirdre (August 5, 1985). "Reborn Steeplechase Park Planned at Coney I." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Mirabella, Alan (June 2, 1985). "A plan to bring back Coney Island". New York Daily News. p. 311. Retrieved February 24, 2019 – via Newspapers.com .
- Chambers, Marcia (April 3, 1977). "New York, After 10 Years, Finds Plan to Create a Coney Island Park Is Unsuccessful". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- "Aquarium Urges Razing Of Coney Island Cyclone". The New York Times. May 27, 1975. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Futrell, J. (2006). Amusement Parks of New York. Amusement Parks Series. Stackpole Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8117-3262-8. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- "Parachute Jump at Coney Island Loses Chance of Landmark Status". The New York Times. October 21, 1977. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- "Coney Island: battered but unbowed, it still amuses". New York Daily News. April 9, 1976. p. 53. Retrieved July 18, 2019 – via newspapers.com .
- Chambers, Marcia (June 16, 1977). "City, in a Shift, Says Coney I. Park Should Become Amusement Area". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Campbell, Colin (August 29, 1981). "Beleaguered Coney Islanders Rally With Sense of Affection – The Talk of Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Lynn, Frank (April 6, 1979). "Koch Urges City Be Considered As a Site for Gambling Casinos". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Fitzgerald, Owen (June 21, 1979). "Casinos seen as a Coney lifesaver". New York Daily News. p. 652. Retrieved February 21, 2019 – via Newspapers.com .
- Basler, Barbara (August 14, 1979). "Opinions Mixed On Casino Plan In Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Fitzgerald, Owen (November 17, 1982). "Effort renewed for rides park". New York Daily News. p. 110. Retrieved February 21, 2019 – via Newspapers.com .
- Quindlen, Anna (February 25, 1982). "About New York; a Ray of Hope Gleams in Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- "Postings – Housing Reprieve". The New York Times. June 10, 1984. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- Chira, Susan (August 20, 1983). "The Talk of Coney Island; at Coney I., Symbols of Heyday Fading Away". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- Freedman, Samuel G. (May 29, 1986). "Coney I.: Symbol of Fun Is Now One of Despair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Williams, Winston (July 18, 1988). "The Talk of Coney Island – Faded Funland: Fears and Hopes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Rangel, Jesus (March 29, 1986). "Coney I. Opening Season With Hope". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Rangel, Jesus (June 5, 1987). "Broad Redevelopment Is Urged for Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Rangel, Jesus (December 5, 1986). "State Proposes Baseball Stadium for Coney I." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Arena, Salvatore (April 26, 1987). "The Business of Bringing Baseball Back to Brooklyn". New York Daily News. pp. 1, 8–9 – via Newspapers.com .
- Kennedy, Shawn G. (August 9, 1989). "Real Estate; Coney Island Development Deal Gaining". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "Coney Island landmarks, present and (we hope) future". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 11, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 13, 1988). "Coney I. Thriller Becomes Landmark". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Maniscalco, Joe (February 15, 2010). "Coney Island Parachute Jump – No climbing allowed!". New York Post. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Wolff, Craig (May 25, 1994). "Coney Island on the Edge; A Region's Venerable Magic Is Buffeted by Modern Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Farrell, Bill (January 21, 1998). "Baseball Pitch Back in Sportsplex Mix Rally for Coney Venue". Daily News (New York). Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Martin, Douglas (November 23, 1998). "Back to the Drawing Board in Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Martin, Douglas (July 21, 1997). "With Times Square Reborn, Attention Turns to Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Rozhon, Tracie (November 22, 1996). "Coney Island Housing Project Complete". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Barnes, Julian E. (April 12, 2000). "Deal Gives Coney Island a Ballpark, and a Team That Some Didn't Want". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Vecsey, George (June 26, 2001). "Summer Rite Returns To Borough of Churches". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Chan, Sewell (May 28, 2005). "And Now for the Good News From the Subway System". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "Mayor Bloomberg Announces Strategic Plan For Future of Coney Island". NYCEDC. September 14, 2005. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Fung, Amanda (June 28, 2009). "Coney Island keeper". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
- Bagli, Charles V. (July 4, 2006). "Down by the Boardwalk, a $1 Billion Revival Plan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "A $1.5 Billion Vision For Coney Island". The New York Sun. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- "Plans Coming Together For Coney Island Amusement Park Expansion". ny1.com. November 14, 2006. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- "New York City Department of City Planning — Amanda M. Burden, Director". Nyc.gov. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Bagli, Charles V. (November 9, 2007). "City Offers Coney Island Plan That Conflicts With a Developer's". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Bagli, Charles V. (February 16, 2009). "City and Developer Spar Over Coney Island Visions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Bagli, Charles V. (April 17, 2008). "City's Coney Island Design Revised to Break Deadlock". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Bagli, Charles V. (April 10, 2009). "City and Developer at Odds Over Future of Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) – New York City Department of City Planning". Nyc.gov. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Bagli, Charles V. (November 11, 2009). "New York to Buy 7 Acres in Coney Island, Hoping for Revival". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Santos, Fernanda (September 10, 2007). "Coney Island's Astroland Closes, Maybe for Good". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Edroso, Roy (July 3, 2009). "New York – Runnin' Scared – Planning Commission Approves Unloved Coney Plan". blogs.villagevoice.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Calder, Rich (September 5, 2007). "Ride Over for Coney Classics". New York Post. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
- McGeehan, Patrick (September 13, 2007). "Plans Afoot to Restore Coney Island Carousel for New Spin on the Boardwalk". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "Coney Island amusement park closing: News & Videos about Coney Island amusement park closing". Ireport.com. CNN. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- Sederstrom, Jotham (April 8, 2009). "Dreamland amusement park to take place of Astroland at Coney Island". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- Donahue, Courtney (June 4, 2010). "It's Saturday — and a new day dawns at Coney Island". Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- Durkin, Erin (February 20, 2010). "It's gonna be a new Coney Island, baby! 19 rides added to Luna Park". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- "Coney Island gets first new roller coasters in 80 years". Reuters. April 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (May 24, 2013). "B&B Carousell Horses Return Home to Coney Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Brown, Stephen R. (June 14, 2014). "Coney Island's new Thunderbolt roller coaster officially opens". NY Daily News. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- "Massive entertainment amphitheater opens on iconic Coney Island Boardwalk". WPIX 11 New York. June 29, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- "Nathan's Famous to Reopen in Spring 2013 after Hurricane Sandy". Brooklyn Paper. December 7, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- "Despite Sandy's Wrath, Coney Island's Luna Park To Reopen On Schedule Sunday". CBS News New York. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- Schneider, Katy (June 28, 2018). "What to Know About the New York Aquarium's New Shark Building". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- Hodgson, Sam (June 28, 2018). "Coney Island's Newest Wonder: Sharkitecture!". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Log flume ride, zip lines coming to Coney Island". AM New York. August 23, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- Chung, Jen (August 23, 2018). "Coney Island's Luna Park Is Getting Log Flume Ride, A Ropes Course, And More!". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 23, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- "City Unveils Plans For New Water Park, Arcade On Coney Island". CBS New York. August 23, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- Ramirez, Jeanine (August 21, 2018). "Coney Island could see first new hotel in over 50 years". Spectrum News NY1 | New York City. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- Franklin, Sydney (August 21, 2018). "Shore Theater on Coney Island will be converted into a boutique hotel". Archpaper.com. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- "Locals demand beloved Coney ice rink remain under Parks Department control". Brooklyn Daily. August 31, 2018. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Maisel, Todd (May 12, 2020). "An endless bummer? Coney Island gripped by uncertainty as summer approaches in COVID-19 era". AM NewYork. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Michel, Clifford (May 7, 2020). "Coney Island Businesses Plead for a Lifesaver to Survive Extended Shutdown". The City. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Vespoli, Lauren (May 21, 2020). "Can Coney Island Survive This?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Bukszpan, Daniel (December 30, 2018). "Coney Island, home to hot dogs and the Cyclone roller coaster, sees a budding real estate boom". CNBC. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "A Wave of New Housing is Being Built in Coney Island". www.ny1.com. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "Sea Breeze Tower to rise above Coney Island". Brooklyn Eagle. August 23, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- Warerkar, Tanay (January 4, 2018). "Massive Coney Island development to have 1,000 apartments, retail". Curbed NY. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- Desk, BWW News. "Coney Island History Project to Celebrate Opening Day with Photo Ops, Oral Histories, Tributes and More". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- "Coney Island History Project | Brooklyn Community Foundation". brooklyncommunityfoundation.org. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
- "Record your Coney Island Memories over the Phone or via Skype". Coney Island History Project. May 1, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "Oral History Archive". Coney Island History Project. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- CORRESPONDENT, Alonzo Kittrels TRIBUNE. "Back In The Day: Photos help to bring back fond memories with father". The Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "Jimmy McCullough". Amusing the Zillion. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "The Wonder Wheel" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 23, 1989. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "The Cyclone" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. July 12, 1988. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
- Salazar, Cristian (July 30, 2015). "The Wonder Wheel at Coney celebrates its 95th summer season". am New York. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Denson, Charles (2011). Coney Island and Astroland. Images of America Series. Arcadia Pub. ISBN 978-0-7385-7428-8. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island's B&B Carousell placed on National Register of Historic Places". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 28, 2018. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- "B&B Carousell designated national historic place, up for federal preservation money". Brooklyn Daily. March 11, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Kaminer, Ariel (April 2, 2010). "Thrilling Reminder of Old Coney Island". The New York Times.
- "National Register Information System – Cyclone Roller Coaster (#91000907)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Diamonstein-Spielvogel, Barbaralee (2011). The Landmarks of New York. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 583. ISBN 978-1-4384-3769-9.
- Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt (Luna Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
"Luna Park breaks ground on new roller coaster, the Thunderbolt, on Coney Island – News 12 Brooklyn". Brooklyn.news12.com. March 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
"New Roller Coaster Promises Coney Island a Return of Thrills". The New York Times. March 11, 2014. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
"Coney Island's Luna Park To Get New Roller Coaster". CBS New York. March 10, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Brown, Stephen R. (June 14, 2014). "Coney Island's new Thunderbolt roller coaster officially opens". NY Daily News. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- "Park Map" (PDF). Deno's Wonder Wheel. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Bumper cars: A crash course on the classic amusement park ride". USA TODAY. February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Fun Map of Coney Island". Coney Island Fun Guide. December 5, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Steeplechase, Luna Park, and Dreamland – BKM TECH". Brooklyn Museum. January 16, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- "Astroland is truly dead". Brooklyn Paper. September 5, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- Durkin, Erin. "Nightmare at Dreamland: Rent woes shut Coney Island park as owner vows court battle". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- McLaughlin, Mike. "It's Over! Coney's Dreamland will be closed for the rest of the summer". Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- "Roller Coasters". Coney Island. June 2, 2004. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt (Coney Island – George Moran)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
- "End of the line". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. South Carolina. Associated Press. November 19, 2000. p. 10A.
- Marden, Duane. "Tornado (Coney Island – Independent Vendor 5)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
- "3 Women Killed in Brooklyn Fires". The New York Times. December 11, 1977. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- "National Register Information System – Parachute Jump (#80002645)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "The Parachute Jump" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 23, 1989. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island Beach & Boardwalk Highlights". Coney Island : NYC Parks. June 26, 1939. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- La Rocco, Barbara (2004). Going Coastal New York City (in Estonian). Going Coastal. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-9729803-0-2. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Manhattan Beach Park : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. June 26, 1939. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
- "Secrets of Coney Island". am New York. August 23, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island Beach & Boardwalk Beaches : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. June 26, 1939. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "Coney Island (Riegelmann) Boardwalk" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 15, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "The Coney Island Polar Bear Club, braving the icy Atlantic". am New York. December 31, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Stein, Mara Lemos (November 24, 2011). "Brooklyn's Swimming Mecca". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Mooney, Jake (May 10, 2009). "On a Beach in Brooklyn, an Empty Lifeguard's Chair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Maps : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. June 26, 1939. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- "Abe Stark Skating Rink Highlights : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Poseidon Playground : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- "Steeplechase Park : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "Surf Playground Highlights". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. May 15, 1923. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- "Getting Here". New York Aquarium. January 2, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Exhibits". New York Aquarium. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
- Poffenberger, Leah (August–September 2018). "This Month in Physics History". American Physical Society. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Freudenheim, E.; Wiener, A. (2004). Brooklyn!, 3rd Edition: The Ultimate Guide to New York's Most Happening Borough. St. Martin's Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-312-32331-8. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Brown, Stephen (January 29, 2010). "Lights Out at Keyspan Park as Naming Rights Deal Ends". The Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Epstein, Victor; Yaniv, Oren (February 4, 2010). "Brooklyn Cyclones' KeySpan Park Renamed MCU Park". Daily News. New York. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "NY1 Exclusive: A Look at the New Coney Island Amphitheater". Ny1.com. March 14, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Updated: Construction Begins on Controversial Seaside Amphitheater". Theconeyislandblog.com. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Coney Island Museum returns to form". The Villager. June 19, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island USA". Coney Island Museum. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island Museum – Museums & Galleries". NYCgo.com. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island History Project – Museums & Galleries". NYCgo.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Special Events". Coney Island USA. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Runners pound the b'walk – Cosme 5K Charity Run brings athletes to the shore". Brooklyn Paper. January 1, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Coney Island on the Ball – Beach volleyball is hitting New York ... & the boardwalk is the place to be". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- Mooney, Jake (February 12, 2006). "On a Gritty Shore, California Dreaming". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Maniscalco, Joe (May 7, 2010). "Spiked! Pro volleyball tourney to skip Coney Island this summer". New York Post. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Beach bums! Pro volleyball shuns Coney, serves up in Brooklyn Bridge Park". Brooklyn Paper. July 24, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Maniscalco, Joe (October 13, 2009). "Coney Island Boom-A-Ring return in the works". New York Post. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Glass, Claire (June 4, 2010). "Ringling's 'Illuscination' opens on June 17". Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Chong, Jinwoo (August 7, 2015). "Coney Island Becomes Coney Art Walls, an All-Day Outdoor Museum of Street Art in NYC". Untapped New York. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- Hubert, Craig (May 24, 2018). "Coney Art Walls Returns to Brooklyn on May 25". Brownstoner. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre – New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division – New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 15, 2016.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin – New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division – New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- "Coney Island (Including Brighton Beach, Coney Island, Gravesend, Homecrest, Sea Gate and West Brighton)" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- "2016–2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- New York City Health Provider Partnership Brooklyn Community Needs Assessment: Final Report, New York Academy of Medicine (October 3, 2014).
- "Census profile: NYC-Brooklyn Community District 13—Brighton Beach & Coney Island PUMA, NY". Census Reporter. July 22, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Congressional District 8, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed May 5, 2017.
- New York City Congressional Districts, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed May 5, 2017.
- Senate District 23, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed May 5, 2017.
- 2012 Senate District Maps: New York City, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed November 17, 2018.
- Assembly District 46, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed May 5, 2017.
- 2012 Assembly District Maps: New York City, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed November 17, 2018.
- Current City Council Districts for Kings County, New York City. Accessed May 5, 2017.
- "Transit District 34 – NYPD". Welcome to NYC.gov. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Coney Island – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- "60th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
- "Engine Company 318/Ladder Company 166". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Michael S. May; Carol Clark; Anne B. Covell (August 1980). "National Register of Historic Places Registration:Coney Island Fire Station Pumping Station". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2011. See also: "Accompanying four photos".
- "Engine Company 245/Ladder Company 161/Battalion 43". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Environmental Assessment HHC Coney Island Hospital New Critical Services Structure New York City, Kings County, New York" (PDF). nychealthandhospitals.org. United States Department of Homeland Security; Federal Emergency Management Agency. July 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- "Zip Code 11224, Brooklyn, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- "Zip Code 11235, Brooklyn, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- "USPS Locations". Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "USPS Locations". Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "Coney Island – BK 13" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
- Tartar, Andre (August 19, 2012). "Teacher Exodus at Coney Island School Where Principal Banned God Bless the USA". New York Magazine. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "P.S. 90 Edna Cohen School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "P.S. 100 The Coney Island School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Scharfenberg, David (November 19, 2006). "Safety Belts On? Renewal Has Its Hazards". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "P.S. 188 Michael E. Berdy". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "P.S. 288 The Shirley Tanyhill". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Hughes, C. J. (April 30, 2010). "Waterfront Living That Doesn't Break the Bank". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "I.S. 303 Herbert S. Eisenberg". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "P.S. 329 Surfside". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Mark Twain I.S. 239 for the Gifted & Talented". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Abraham Lincoln High School". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- "Teachers Boycott Hs To Protest An Arrest." New York Daily News. May 3, 2007. Retrieved on October 11, 2012.
- "Coney Island Library". Brooklyn Public Library. August 19, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: neighborhood". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- "Stillwell Terminal Remains a Sparkling Jewel a Decade after Full Rehabilitation". www.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 20, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- Matus, Paul (May 2003). "The New BMT Coney Island Terminal". thethirdrail.net. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Google (July 21, 2018). "Coney Island, Brooklyn, NY" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "Bicycle Maps" (PDF). NYC.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "NYC Ferry is adding 2 new routes". am New York. January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- Plitt, Amy (January 10, 2019). "NYC Ferry will launch service to Staten Island, Coney Island". Curbed NY. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- "2020–2021 Expansion". New York City Ferry Service. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- Rabinovitz, Lauren (2004). "The Coney Island Comedies". In Charlie Keil, Shelley Stamp (ed.). American cinema's transitional era: audiences, institutions, practices (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24027-8.
- Frank, R.J.; Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art; San Diego Museum of Art; Brooklyn Museum; McNay Art Museum (2015). Coney Island: Visions of an American Dreamland, 1861–2008. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-300-18990-2. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "Movie Shot at Coney Island List". Westland. July 10, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan (Academy Editions, London, 1978; republished, The Monacelli Press, 1994 — a large part of the book focuses on Coney Island amusement parks)
- John F. Kasson, Amusing The Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century (Hill and Wang, New York, 1978; Distributed in Canada by Douglas and McIntyre Ltd.)
- Charles Denson, Coney Island: Lost and Found (Ten Speed Press, 2002)
- Coney Island, a 1991 documentary film by Ric Burns for American Experience
- Townsend Percy (1880). Percy's Pocket dictionary of Coney Island. New York: E. Leypoldt. OCLC 5926329. OL 6906857M.
- J. Perkins Tracy (1887). The tourists companion and guide to Coney Island, Fort Hamilton, Bath Beach, Sheepshead Bay, Rockaway Beach and Far Rockaway. New York: Austin Publishing Co. OL 23411073M.
- The Comprehensive History of Coney Island at Heart of Coney Island
- Coney Island History Articles
- Bland as Sand: Developers Stalk Coney Island, The Indypendent
- Gritty and Trashy... That’s Why I Love It, The Indypendent
- Bruce, Jeannette. "Where The Fun Was,"Sports Illustrated, August 28, 1967
- Coney Island History Project
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 897. .