Confounding

In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor, extraneous determinant or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable, causing a spurious association. Confounding is a causal concept, and as such, cannot be described in terms of correlations or associations.[1][2][3]

Illustration of a simple confounding factor. In other words, Z is the cause of X and Y.

Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Confounding, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.