Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right wing of the liberal movement. It is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism.
This article or section may be written in a style that is too abstract to be readily understandable by general audiences. (August 2016)
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
the United States
Neoconservatism has also been identified as an ideological relative or twin to conservative liberalism, and some similarities exist also between conservative liberalism and national liberalism.
According to Robert Kraynak, a professor at Colgate University, rather than "following progressive liberalism (i.e. social liberalism), conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty under God and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny. It shows that a regime of liberty based on traditional morality and classical-Christian culture is an achievement we can be proud of, rather than merely defensive about, as trustees of Western civilization".
In the European context, conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism which is a variant of conservatism combining conservative views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social and ethical issues. The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, the political class in most European countries from Germany to Italy was formed by conservative liberals. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism. Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.
Comparisons to neoconservatism
[I]n America today, responsible liberals—who are usually called neoconservatives—see that liberalism depends on human beings who are somewhat child-centered, patriotic, and religious. These responsible liberals praise these non-individualistic human propensities in an effort to shore up liberalism. One of their slogans is 'conservative sociology with liberal politics.' The neoconservatives recognize that the politics of free and rational individuals depends upon a pre-political social world that is far from free and rational as a whole.
Conservative liberal parties worldwide
Conservative liberal parties or parties with conservative liberal factions
- Argentina: Union of the Democratic Centre
- Australia: Liberal Party of Australia
- Belarus: United Civic Party of Belarus
- Belgium: Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Reformist Movement, New Flemish Alliance, Libertarian, Direct, Democratic, People's Party
- Brazil: Progressive Party, Social Democratic Party, Liberal Party
- Bulgaria: National Movement for Stability and Progress
- Canada: British Columbia Liberal Party, Coalition Avenir Québec, Saskatchewan Party
- Croatia: Croatian Social Liberal Party
- Czech Republic: ANO 2011, Civic Democratic Party, TOP 09
- Denmark: Venstre–Liberal Party of Denmark
- Estonia: Estonian Reform Party
- El Salvador: Nuevas Ideas, GANA
- Faroe Islands: Union Party, People's Party
- Finland: National Coalition Party, Centre Party
- France: The Republicans, Agir
- Germany: Free Democratic Party
- Greece: New Democracy
- Greenland: Feeling of Community
- Iceland: Independence Party
- Israel: Likud, Telem, New Hope
- Italy: Forza Italia
- Japan: Liberal Democratic Party (factions), Democratic Party for the People
- Latvia: Unity
- Lithuania: Liberal Movement, Freedom and Justice
- Luxembourg: Democratic Party
- Moldova: Liberal Party, Liberal Reformist Party
- Netherlands: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
- New Zealand: New Zealand National Party
- Norway: Progress Party
- Philippines: Liberal Party
- Poland: Civic Platform
- Portugal: Social Democratic Party
- Romania: National Liberal Party
- Slovakia: Freedom and Solidarity For the People
- Slovenia: Slovenian Democratic Party
- South Africa: Cape Party, Democratic Alliance
- South Korea: Minsaeng Party, Party of Nationals, Democratic Party of Korea (factions)
- Spain: People's Party, Catalan European Democratic Party, Basque Nationalist Party
- Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals
- Sweden: Liberals
- Thailand: Democrat Party
- Ukraine: Civil Position
- United Kingdom: Conservative Party
- United States: Republican Party (factions)
Historical conservative liberal parties or parties with conservative liberal factions
- Austria: Constitutional Party, Federation of Independents, Freedom Party of Austria
- Belarus: Belarusian Peasant Party
- Brazil: National Democratic Union
- Chile: National Party
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Alliance, Public Affairs
- El Salvador: National Coalition Party
- France: Union for the New Republic/Union of Democrats for the Republic/Rally for the Republic, Independent Republicans/Republican Party/Liberal Democracy, Union for French Democracy Republican Party, Union for a Popular Movement
- Germany: German People's Party
- Iceland: Liberal Party (1927), Liberal Party (1998)
- Ireland: Progressive Democrats
- Israel: General Zionists, Liberal Party
- Italy: Italian Liberal Party, Italian Liberal Right, Forza Italia, Civic Choice
- Latvia: Latvian Way, Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way
- Lithuania: National Resurrection Party, Liberal and Centre Union
- Mexico: Liberal Party
- Netherlands: Liberal State Party, Party of Freedom
- New Zealand: United Party
- Norway: Frisinnede Venstre
- Poland: Liberty, League of the Right of the Republic, Liberal Democratic Congress, Poland Together
- Romania: Democratic Liberal Party, Liberal Reformist Party
- Serbia: Serbian Progressive Party
- Slovakia: Democratic Party
- South Korea: Korea Democratic Party, Democratic Nationalist Party, Democratic Party (1955), New Democratic Party, Reunification Democratic Party, Democratic Party (1990), United Democratic Party (1995), Party for Democracy and Peace, New Alternatives
- Spain: Liberal Party, Democratic Convergence of Catalonia
- Switzerland: Free Democratic Party, Liberal Party
- Turkey: Justice and Development Party
- United Kingdom: Liberal Unionist Party, National Liberal Party
- United States: Whig Party
- Centre-right politics
- Classical liberalism
- Economic liberalism
- Liberal conservatism
- Libertarian conservatism
- Scientific politics
- M. Gallagher, M. Laver and P. Mair, Representative Government in Europe, p. 221.
- R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 2.
- "Content". Parties and Elections in Europe. 2020.
- "Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism - Roger Scruton" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-21. Retrieved 2017-10-21.
- Robert Kraynak, Living with liberalism, The New Criterion, 2005
- R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 13.
- "Libéralisme conservateur - WikiPolitique". Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2019-07-09.
- Peter Lawler, Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism, The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 2003/Spring 2004
- Pion-Berlin, David (1997), Through Corridors of Power: Institutions and Civil-military Relations in Argentina, Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 66
- Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0.
- Slomp 2011, p. 465.
- "Parties and Elections in Europe".
- Barbara Happe (2003). "Brazil". In Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Norbert Kersting (eds.). Poverty and Democracy: Self-Help and Political Participation in Third World Cities. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-205-8.
- Caroline Close (2019). "The liberal family ideology: Distinct, but diverse". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-351-24549-4.
- Rudolf Andorka (1999). A Society Transformed: Hungary in Time-space Perspective. Central European University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-963-9116-49-8.
- Krisztina Arató; Petr Kaniok (2009). Euroscepticism and European Integration. CPI/PSRC. p. 191. ISBN 978-953-7022-20-4.
- Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopecek (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0.
- NSD, European Election Database, Czech Republic
- Emil J. Kirchner (1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9.
- Alari Purju (2003). "Economic Performance and Market Reforms". In Marat Terterov; Jonathan Reuvid (eds.). Doing Business with Estonia. GMB Publishing Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-905050-56-7.
- Tom Lansford (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE Publications. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4.
- Slomp 2011, p. 446.
- Hans Slomp (2000). European Politics Into the Twenty-first Century: Integration and Division. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-275-96800-7.
- Stephen George (1991). Politics and Policy in the European Community (Comparative European Politics). University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-19-878055-7.
- Jörg Arnold (2006). "Criminal Law as a Reaction to System Crime: Policy for Dealing with the Past in European Transitions". In Jerzy W. Borejsza; Klaus Ziemer (eds.). Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century. Berghahn Books. p. 410. ISBN 1-57181-641-0.
- Slomp 2011, p. 680.
- Hilo Glazer, How Likud's Youngest MK Went From the Peace Camp to the Right, Haaretz, Sep 29, 2015
- Anshel Pfeffer, How the Likud Primaries Could Backfire on Netanyahu, Haaretz, Nov 25, 2012
- "Der Rivale macht Ernst".
- Agnes Blome (2016). The Politics of Work-Family Policy Reforms in Germany and Italy. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-317-55436-3.
- Tetsuya Kobayashi (1976). Society, Schools, and Progress in Japan. Elsevier Science. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4831-3622-6.
- "今さら聞けない?! 「保守」「リベラル」ってなんだ？" [Can't you ask about them now ?! What are "conservative" and "liberal"?] (in Japanese). Retrieved 5 June 2020.
ところが、現実の政治はもっと複雑です。自民党にもリベラル派がたくさんいるからです。自民党は考え方の近い人たちが派閥というグループをつくっています。(Tr: However, real politics is more complicated. This is because there are many liberals in the LDP. The Liberal Democratic Party is made up of groups of people with similar ideas, called factions.)
- Yano, Takeshi. "日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)". kotobank.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
- Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
- "NSD, European Election Database, Netherlands". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Rudy W Andeweg; Lieven De Winter; Patrick Dumont (2011). Government Formation. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-134-23972-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Jochen Clasen; Daniel Clegg (2011). Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-959229-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Slomp 2011, p. 459.
- David Hanley (1998). CHRISTIAN DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-85567-382-3. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Ricky Van Oers; Eva Ersbøll; Dora Kostakopoulou; Theodora Kostakopoulou (2010). A Re-Definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe. BRILL. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-17506-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- NSD - European Election Database, Norway
- Mart Laar (2010). The Power of Freedom - Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. Unitas Foundation. p. 229. ISBN 978-9949-21-479-2.
- Joanna A. Gorska (2012). Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland's Policy toward Russia, 1989-2009. Lexington Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7391-4534-0.
- Bartek Pytlas (2016). Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: Mainstream Party Competition and Electoral Fortune. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-317-49586-4.
- Diamantino P. Machado (1991). The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-275-93784-3.
- Slomp 2011, p. 561.
- Pather, Raeesa (24 October 2019). "Will the DA survive Mmusi Maimane's resignation?". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
Zille…is seen as representing a conservative-liberal grouping within the DA.
- "중도보수' 표방 새정치연합, '세모녀 법'등 민생정치도 '흔들'". 참세상. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-04-26.
- 새정치민주연합 “성찰적 진보와 합리적 보수 아우를 것”. 한겨레. (March 16, 2014)
- Anna Bosco (2013). Party Change in Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-136-76777-7.
- Slomp 2011, p. 519.
- Siripan Nogsuan Sawasdee (2012), "Thailand", Political Parties and Democracy: Contemporary Western Europe and Asia, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 157
- Olszański, Tadeusz A. (17 September 2014), Ukraine's political parties at the start of the election campaign, OSW—Centre for Eastern Studies
- Slomp 2011, p. 107.
- Stephen White; Elena A. Korosteleva; John Löwenhardt (2005). Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7425-3555-8.
- Tadeusz Buksiński (2009). Democracy in Western and Postcommunist Countries: Twenty Years After the Fall of Communism. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-3-631-58543-6.
- Frank Chibulka (2012). "The Czech Republic". In Donnacha O Beachain; Vera Sheridan; Sabina Stan (eds.). Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe after EU Membership. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-136-29981-0.
- Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 105. STANFORD:RW793BX2256. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Slomp 2011, p. 385.
- Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 77.
- Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Pres. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.
- Helena Waddy (2010). Oberammergau in the Nazi Era: The Fate of a Catholic Village in Hitler's Germany. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-19-970779-9.
- Stijn van Kessel (2015). Populist Parties in Europe: Agents of Discontent?. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-137-41411-3.
- Kerstin Hamann; John Kelly (2010). Parties, Elections, and Policy Reforms in Western Europe: Voting for Social Pacts. Routledge. p. 1982. ISBN 978-1-136-94986-9.
- Maurizio Cotta; Luca Verzichelli (2007). Political Institutions in Italy. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-928470-2.
- Walter Kickert; Tiina Randma-Liiv (2015). Europe Managing the Crisis: The Politics of Fiscal Consolidation. Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-317-52570-7.
- Slomp 2011, p. 532.
- Caroline Close; Pascal Delwit (2019). "Liberal parties and elections: Electoral performances and voters' profile". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-351-24549-4.
- Emiel Lamberts (1997). Christian Democracy in the European Union, 1945/1995: Proceedings of the Leuven Colloquium, 15-18 November 1995. Leuven University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-90-6186-808-8.
- Daniels, John Richard Sinclair. "United Party". In McLintock, A. H. (ed.). An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Salvatore Garau (2015). Fascism and Ideology: Italy, Britain, and Norway. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-317-90947-7.
- Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-134-08411-1.
- Jerzy Szacki (1994). Liberalism After Communism. Central European University Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-85866-016-5.
- Dariusz Skrzypinski (2016). "Patterns of Recruitment of Polish Candidates in the 2014 European Parliament Elections". In Ruxandra Boicu; Silvia Branea; Adriana Stefanel (eds.). Political Communication and European Parliamentary Elections in Times of Crisis: Perspectives from Central and South-Eastern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-137-58591-2.
- Njagulov, Blagovest (2014). Early Socialism in the Balkans: Ideas and Practices in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Entangled Histories of the Balkans. 2. Brill. p. 232.
- Jacques Rupnik; Jan Zielonka (2003). The Road to the European Union. Manchester University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7190-6597-2.
- "Three conservative opposition parties, "President Roh, apologize for canceling his pledge to relocate the office to Gwanghwamun". (Korean)". views&news. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- Slomp 2011, p. 518.
- Slomp 2011, p. 489.
- Picq, Manuela (2015). Sexualities in World Politics. Routledge. p. 126.
- Bugra, Ayse (2014). New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 49.
- Yesilada, Birol (2013). Islamization of Turkey under the AKP Rule. Routledge. p. 63.
- Slomp, Hans (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8.