Constitution of India

The Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India.[3][4] The document lays down the framework that demarcates fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country.[lower-alpha 1][5][6][7]

Constitution of India
Jurisdiction India
Ratified26 November 1949; 71 years ago (1949-11-26)
Date effective26 January 1950; 71 years ago (1950-01-26)
SystemFederal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic
BranchesThree (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary)
ChambersTwo (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha)
ExecutivePrime minister-led cabinet responsible to the lower house of the parliament
JudiciarySupreme court, high courts and district courts
FederalismFederal[1]
Electoral collegeYes, for presidential and vice-presidential elections
Entrenchments2
Amendments104
Last amended25 January 2020 (104th)
CitationConstitution of India (PDF), 9 September 2020, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020
LocationParliament House, New Delhi, India
Author(s)B. R. Ambedkar
Chairman of the Drafting Committee

B. N. Rau
Constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly

Surendra Nath Mukherjee
Chief Draftsman of the Constituent Assembly[2]

and other members of Constituent Assembly
Signatories284 members of the Constituent Assembly
SupersedesGovernment of India Act 1935
Indian Independence Act 1947

It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble.[8] Parliament cannot override the constitution.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Constitution of India on a 2015 postage stamp of India

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950.[9] The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395.[10] India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.[11]

The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular,[12] and democratic republic, assures its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity.[13] The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble by 42nd amendment act in 1976, during the Emergency.[14]