Constitution of India
The Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework that demarcates fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country.
|Constitution of India|
|Ratified||26 November 1949|
|Date effective||26 January 1950|
|System||Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic|
|Branches||Three (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary)|
|Chambers||Two (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha)|
|Executive||Prime minister-led cabinet responsible to the lower house of the parliament|
|Judiciary||Supreme court, high courts and district courts|
|Electoral college||Yes, for presidential and vice-presidential elections|
|Last amended||25 January 2020 (104th)|
|Citation||Constitution of India (PDF), 9 September 2020, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020|
|Location||Parliament House, New Delhi, India|
|Author(s)||B. N. Rau|
Constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly
B. R. Ambedkar
|Signatories||284 members of the Constituent Assembly|
|Supersedes||Government of India Act 1935|
Indian Independence Act 1947
|Part of a series on the|
|Constitution of India|
It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution.
It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, assures its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble by 42nd amendment act in 1976, during the Emergency.