Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years. It is the fourth constitution in the country's history, superseding the 1954 constitution, the 1975 constitution, and the 1978 constitution.

Constitution of the
People's Republic of China
Cover of the current constitution
Original title中华人民共和国宪法
JurisdictionPeople's Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau)
RatifiedDecember 4, 1982
Date effectiveDecember 4, 1982
SystemUnitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic
BranchesSix (Legislative, Executive, Military, Supervisory, Judicial, Procuratorial)
Head of statePresident
ChambersUnicameral (National People's Congress)[lower-alpha 1]
ExecutivePremier-led State Council
JudiciarySupreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
FederalismUnitary with special administrative regions
Electoral collegeYes – the National People's Congress, which elects all other state authorities, is itself elected by two layers of Indirect election: County and Township People's Congresses elect the members of Provincial People's Congresses, who in turn elect the members of the National People's Congress.
First legislatureSeptember 21, 1949 (Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference)
September 27, 1954 (National People's Congress)
First executiveSeptember 27, 1954 (Chairman)
October 1, 1949 (Premier)
First courtOctober 22, 1949
Last amended11 March 2018
Commissioned by11th Communist Party Central Committee
Supersedes1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China
Constitution of the People's Republic of China at Wikisource
Constitution of the People's Republic of China
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國憲法
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国宪法

Though technically the "supreme legal authority" and "fundamental law of the state", the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has a documented history of violating many of the constitution's provisions and censoring calls for greater adherence to it.[1][2][3] Furthermore, claims of violations of constitutional rights cannot be used in Chinese courts.[4][5]