Convergence and Union
Convergence and Union (Catalan: Convergència i Unió, CiU; IPA: [kumbəɾˈʒɛnsi.ə j uniˈo]) was a Catalan nationalist electoral alliance in Catalonia, Spain. It was a federation of two constituent parties, the larger Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and its smaller counterpart, the Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC). It was dissolved on 17 June 2015.
|General Secretary||Ramon Espadaler|
|Founded||19 September 1978 (coalition)|
2 December 2001 (federation)
|Dissolved||17 June 2015|
|Preceded by||Democratic Pact for Catalonia|
Democracy and Catalonia
|Succeeded by||Junts pel Sí|
|Headquarters||C/ Còrsega, 331-333|
|Ideology||Catalan nationalism |
• Christian democracy
• Catalan independentism
• Social democracy
|Political position||Centre to|
|European affiliation||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (CDC)|
European People's Party (UDC)
|International affiliation||Liberal International (CDC)|
Centrist Democrat International (UDC)
|European Parliament group||ALDE Group (CDC)|
EPP Group (UDC)
|Colours||Dark blue (customary) |
CiU was a Catalan nationalist coalition. It was usually seen as a moderate nationalist party in Spain, although a significant part of its membership had shifted to open Catalan independentism in recent years[when?] and in 2014 demonstrated its intention to hold a referendum on Catalan independence. There is some debate as to whether the coalition was conservative or centrist. Liberal tendencies dominate the larger CDC, while the smaller UDC is a Christian democratic party. As for its position in the nationalist debate, it was deliberately ambiguous so as to appeal to the broadest spectrum possible, from voters who seek full independence from Spain to those who are generally satisfied with the present self-government status. In general, the CDC tends to be more supportive of Catalan sovereignty, while the UDC is considered closer to traditional Catalan autonomism and more nuanced nationalism. The electoral manifesto for the elections in 2012 states that "we want to build a wide social majority so that Catalonia can have its own State in the European frame, because Catalonia has the will to become a normal country among world's countries and nations".
In the most recent regional elections, held on 25 September 2012, CiU won 30.71% of the vote. It lost 12 seats in the Catalan Parliament, bringing them to a total of 50 deputies. While they have more than twice as many deputies as any other party, they were left 18 seats short of a majority in the 135-member body. After the election, they entered into coalition with the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), which has a completely different political orientation but also supports Catalan independence. El Periódico de Catalunya reported in August 2013 that the coalition may break apart due to fractions within the union about Catalan independence, with UDC opposing secessionism.
On 18 June 2015 CDC spokespersons declared the CiU federation "finished", albeit amenable to an "amicable" separation. This occurred after an ultimatum had been issued by President Mas to UDC, due to their diverging positions on the Catalan independence process.
Policies and ideology
CiU is generally considered a Catalan nationalist party; this is also the term it uses to describe itself. Both the Spanish and Catalan media perceive it as a moderate nationalist force. However, its liberal fraction (CDC) has a relatively strong current which advocates Catalan independence from Spain and which has grown stronger after 2006. Many high ranking exponents of the Democratic Convergence define CiU as an independentist political force. The party's president Artur Mas has stated he would vote in favour of Catalan independence in a theoretical referendum of independence, but he added this would not be his official policy if elected as President of Catalonia.
On the other hand, the Christian democratic part of the coalition, the Democratic Union of Catalonia, is less favourable to the idea of an independent Catalonia. Nevertheless, several prominent members of the Democratic Union have also supported independence, especially since the late 2000s. However, the supporters of independence within the Democratic Union are a minority with much less influence than their counterparts in the Democratic Convergence.
Terms of office
At the Catalan level, CiU ruled the autonomous Catalan government during the 1980s until 2003 for 23 consecutive years led by Jordi Pujol (CDC). Pujol was succeeded in the party leadership by Artur Mas (CDC), while Unió's leader (second at the CiU level) is Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida. It then served in opposition to a tripartite centre-left government of the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and the Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV) until November 2010, when it regained power (but lacking an overall majority, still needing a coalition partner).
2008 General Elections
CiU supported changes to the Catalan Statute of Autonomy to further increase Catalonia's autonomy. It is currently the most voted party at regional elections in Catalonia, but in 2003 lost its absolute majority and is the main opposition party at the Catalan autonomous level, having been replaced in the government by a centre-left tripartite coalition formed in 2003 and re-formed after the 2006 Catalan regional elections, which were called due to divisions in the coalition.
2010 Catalan elections
On Sunday 28 November 2010 (28-N) CiU regained control of the regional parliament after seven years in opposition, winning about 38 per cent of the popular vote, earning 62 seats out of the total 135. Its platform was broadly centrist, and somewhat ambiguous about independence from Spain.
In the 2010 elections the turnout was just above 60%, and the Socialists' Party of Catalonia were considered the biggest losers, holding only 28 seats of their former 37. All other parties lost support, as well, except the liberal-conservative People's Party of Catalonia, which increased its support by 1.5%, and the liberal Citizens' Party which maintained their position.
2012 Catalan elections
On Sunday 25 November 2012 CiU maintained its control of the regional parliament by winning approximately 30 per cent of the popular vote and earning 50 seats of the total 135. This represents a drop in voter support since the 2010 election, with voter turn-out for the 2012 election at approximately 70%, or the highest since 1998. It is also the lowest percentage of the vote the coalition has scored since its formation in 1988.
Parliament of Catalonia
|Parliament of Catalonia|
|Election||Votes||%||#||Seats||+/–||Leading candidate||Status in legislature|
43 / 135
72 / 135
|29||Jordi Pujol||Coalition (CiU–ERC)|
|Majority (from Feb. 1987)|
69 / 135
70 / 135
60 / 135
56 / 135
46 / 135
48 / 135
62 / 135
50 / 135
|12||Artur Mas||Minority (CDC–UDC)|
|Minority (CDC; from Jun. 2015)|
|Election||Congress||Senate||Leading candidate||Status in legislature|
8 / 350
1 / 208
12 / 350
5 / 208
18 / 350
8 / 208
18 / 350
10 / 208
17 / 350
10 / 208
|0||Miquel Roca||Confidence and supply|
16 / 350
8 / 208
|2||Joaquim Molins||Confidence and supply|
15 / 350
8 / 208
10 / 350
4 / 208
|4||Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida||Opposition|
10 / 350
4 / 208
|0||Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida||Opposition|
16 / 350
9 / 208
|5||Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida||Opposition|
8 / 47
1 / 16
12 / 47
5 / 16
18 / 47
8 / 16
18 / 46
10 / 16
17 / 47
10 / 16
16 / 46
8 / 16
15 / 46
8 / 16
10 / 47
4 / 16
10 / 47
4 / 16
16 / 47
9 / 16
3 / 60
2 / 60
3 / 64
3 / 64
1 / 54
2 / 54
2 / 54
- Compared to the combined totals of Democratic Pact for Catalonia and Union of the Centre and Christian Democracy of Catalonia in the 1977 general election.
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