Gulf Cooperation Council
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (Arabic: مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional, intergovernmental political and economic union that consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The council main headquarter is in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. The Charter of the GCC was signed on 25 May 1981, formally establishing the institution.
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Map indicating GCC members
|Headquarters||Riyadh, Saudi Arabia|
|Nayef bin Falah Al-Hajraf|
|United Arab Emirates|
• As the GCC
|25 May 1981|
|2,673,108 km2 (1,032,093 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2021* estimate
|21.13/km2 (54.7/sq mi) (162nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$3.655 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018* estimate|
|$1.638 trillion (11th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2012)|| 28.7|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.840|
very high · 45th
All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies (Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain), two absolute monarchies (Saudi Arabia and Oman), and one federal monarchy (the United Arab Emirates, which is composed of seven member states, each of which is an absolute monarchy with its own emir). There have been discussions regarding the future membership of Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen.
A proposal in 2011 to transform the GCC into a "Gulf Union" with tighter economic, political and military coordination was advanced by Saudi Arabia during Arab Spring, a move meant to counterbalance the Iranian influence in the region. Objections were raised against the proposal by other countries. In 2014, Bahrain prime minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa said that current events in the region highlighted the importance of the proposal. The Peninsula Shield Force is the military arm of the GCC, formed in 1984.
The original 2,673,110-square-kilometre (1,032,093 sq mi) union comprised Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. These countries are often referred to as "the GCC states" or "Gulf countries".
In 2001, the GCC Supreme Council set the following goals:
Oman announced in December 2006 that it would not be able to meet the 2010 target date for a common currency. Following the announcement that the central bank for the monetary union would be located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and not in the UAE, the UAE announced their withdrawal from the monetary union project in May 2009. The name Khaleeji has been proposed as a name for this currency. If realised, the GCC monetary union would be the second-largest supranational monetary union in the world, measured by the GDP of the common-currency area.
Other stated objectives include:
- Formulating similar regulations in various fields such as religion, finance, trade, customs, tourism, legislation, and administration.
- Fostering scientific and technical progress in industry, mining, agriculture, water and animal resources.
- Establishing scientific research centers.
- Setting up joint ventures.
- Unified military (Peninsula Shield Force)
- Encouraging cooperation of the private sector.
- Strengthening ties between their people.
This area has some of the fastest-growing economies in the world, mostly due to a boom in oil and natural gas revenues coupled with a building and investment boom backed by decades of saved petroleum revenues. In an effort to build a tax base and economic foundation before the reserves run out, the UAE's investment arms, including Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, retain over US$900 billion in assets. Other regional funds also have several hundreds of billions of dollars of assets under management.
The region is an emerging hotspot for events, including the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar. Doha also submitted an unsuccessful application for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Qatar was later chosen to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.
Recovery plans have been criticized for crowding out the private sector, failing to set clear priorities for growth, failing to restore weak consumer and investor confidence, and undermining long-term stability.
The logo of the GCC consists of two concentric circles. On the upper part of the larger circle, the Bismillah phrase is written in Arabic, which means "In the name of God", and on the lower part the council's full name, in Arabic. The inner circle contains an embossed hexagonal shape that represents the council's six member countries. The inside of the hexagon is filled by a map encompassing the Arabian Peninsula, on which the areas of the member countries are borderless and colored in brown. On the edge of the hexagon are colors representing the flags of the six member countries.
A common market was launched on 1 January 2008 with plans to realise a fully integrated single market. It eased the movement of goods and services. However, implementation lagged behind after the 2009 financial crisis. The creation of a customs union began in 2003 and was completed and fully operational on 1 January 2015. In January 2015, the common market was also further integrated, allowing full equality among GCC citizens to work in the government and private sectors, social insurance and retirement coverage, real estate ownership, capital movement, access to education, health and other social services in all member states. However, some barriers remained in the free movement of goods and services. The coordination of taxation systems, accounting standards and civil legislation is currently[when?] in progress. The interoperability of professional qualifications, insurance certificates and identity documents is also underway.
In 2014, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia took major steps to ensure the creation of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister said the four members are pushing ahead with the monetary union but said some "technical points" need to be cleared. He added, "A common market and common central bank would also position the GCC as one entity that would have great influence on the international financial system". The implementation of a single currency and the creation of a central bank is overseen by the Monetary Council.
There is currently a degree to which a nominal GCC single currency already exists. Businesses trade using a basket of GCC currencies, just as before the euro was introduced, the European Currency Unit (ECU) was long used beforehand as a nominal medium of exchange. Plans to introduce a single currency had been drawn up as far back as 2009, however due to the financial crisis[which?] and political differences, the UAE and Oman withdrew their membership.[when?]
Mergers and acquisitions
Companies and investors from GCC countries are active in mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Since 1999, more than 5,200 transactions with a known value of US$573 billion have been announced. They are active within GCC and in cross-border M&A abroad. The investor group includes in particular a number of sovereign wealth funds.
The GCC launched common economic projects to promote and facilitate integration. The member states have connected their power grids, and a water connection project was launched with plans to be in use by 2020. A project to create common air transport was also unveiled.
The GCC also launched major rail projects to connect the peninsula. The railways are expected to fuel intra-regional trade while helping reduce fuel consumption. Over US$200 billion will be invested to develop about 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi) of rail network across the GCC, according to Oman's Minister of Transport and Communications. The project, estimated to be worth $15.5 billion, is scheduled to be completed by 2021. "It will link the six member states as a regional transport corridor, further integrating with the national railway projects, deepening economic social and political integration, and it is developed from a sustainable perspective." stated, Ramiz Al Assar, Resident World Bank advisor for the GCC.
Saudi Arabian Railways, Etihad Rail, and national governments have poured billions into railway infrastructure to create rail networks for transporting freight, connecting cities, and reducing transport times.
Politics and governance
The GCC Supreme Council is composed of the heads of the member states. It is the highest decision-making entity of the GCC, setting its vision and goals. Decisions on substantive issues require unanimous approval, while issues on procedural matters require a majority. Each member state has one vote. Its presidency is rotatory based on the alphabetical order of the names of the member states.
The Ministerial Council is composed of the Foreign Ministers of all the member states. It convenes every three months. It primarily formulates policies and makes recommendations to promote cooperation and achieve coordination among the member states when implementing ongoing projects. Its decisions are submitted in the form of recommendations for the approval of the Supreme Council. The Ministerial Council is also responsible for preparations of meetings of the Supreme Council and its agenda. The voting procedure in the Ministerial Council is the same as in the Supreme Council.
The Secretariat is the executive arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council. It takes decisions within its authority and implements decisions approved by the Supreme or Ministerial Council. The Secretariat also compiles studies relating to cooperation, coordination, and planning for common action. It prepares periodical reports regarding the work done by the GCC as a whole and regarding the implementation of its own decisions. The current Secretary-General is Nayef Falah Mubarak Al Hajraf, and his deputies include Abdulaziz Al Auwaishig and Khalifa Alfadhel.
On 15 December 2009, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia announced the creation of a Monetary Council to introduce a single currency for the union. The board of the council, which set a timetable and action plan for establishing a central bank and choosing a currency regime, met for the first time on 30 March 2010. Kuwaiti foreign minister Mohammad Sabah Al-Sabah said on 8 December 2009 that a single currency may take up to ten years to establish. The original target was in 2010. Oman and the UAE later announced their withdrawal from the proposed currency.
In 2014, major moves were taken to ensure the launch of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister stated that a currency should be implemented without delay. Negotiations with the UAE and Oman to expand the monetary union were renewed.
The GCC Patent Office was approved in 1992 and established soon after in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Applications are filed and prosecuted in the Arabic language before the GCC Patent Office in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, which is a separate office from the Saudi Arabian Patent Office. The GCC Patent Office grants patents valid in all GCC member states. The first GCC patent was granted in 2002. As of 2013, it employed about 30 patent examiners.
Peninsula Shield Force
Amidst the Bahraini uprising, Saudi Arabia and the UAE sent ground troops to Bahrain in order to protect vital infrastructure such as the airport and highway system. Kuwait and Oman refrained from sending troops. Instead, Kuwait sent a navy unit.
The secretary-general of the GCC strongly endorsed the use of international force in Libya. GCC member states joined coalition efforts to enforce the no-fly zone.
In September 2014, GCC members Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE and Qatar, plus pending member Jordan, commenced air operations against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Syria. Saudi Arabia and the UAE, however, are among the states that oppose the Muslim Brotherhood in Syria, whereas Qatar has historically supported it. They also pledged other support including operating training facilities for Syrian rebels (in Saudi Arabia) and allowing the use of their airbases by other countries fighting ISIL. Some of the GCC countries also send some troops to fight the opposition government in Yemen.
GCC Standardization Organization (GSO)
This is the standardization organization of the GCC, and Yemen also belongs to this organization.
Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting (GOIC)
The Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting (GOIC) was founded in 1976 by the six GCC member states; Yemen joined the organization in 2009. It is headquartered at Doha, Qatar. The organization chart of GOIC includes the Board members and the General Secretariat. The Board is formed by member state representatives appointed by their governments.
|26 May 1981 – April 1993||Abdullah Bishara||Kuwait|
|April 1993 – April 1996||Fahim bin Sultan Al Qasimi||United Arab Emirates|
|April 1996 – 31 March 2002||Jamil Ibrahim Hejailan||Saudi Arabia|
|1 April 2002 – 31 March 2011||Abdul Rahman bin Hamad Al Attiyah||Qatar|
|1 April 2011 – 2020||Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani||Bahrain|
|1 February 2020 –||Nayef Falah Mubarak Al Hajraf||Kuwait|
There are 6 member states of the union:
|Flag||Common name||Official name||Type of government||Population||Area (km²)||GDP(US$ M)||GDP per cap.(PPP)||GDP rank||Currency||HDI|
|in English||in romanized Arabic|
|Bahrain||Kingdom of Bahrain||Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn||Constitutional monarchy||1,569,439||780||34,624||74,245||21||Bahraini dinar (BHD)||0.852|
|Kuwait||State of Kuwait||Dawlat al-Kuwayt||Parliamentary system, Constitutional monarchy||4,420,110||17,818||108,656||203,786||34||Kuwaiti dinar (KWD)||0.806|
|Oman||Sultanate of Oman||Saltanat ʻUman||Absolute monarchy||4,829,473||309,500||79,277||200,314||47||Omani rial (OMR)||0.813|
|Qatar||State of Qatar||Dawlat Qaṭar||Absolute monarchy||2,795,484||11,581||147,791||257,464||4||Qatari riyal (QAR)||0.848|
|Saudi Arabia||Kingdom of Saudi Arabia||Al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya||Absolute monarchy||34,218,169||2,149,690||680,000||1,600,000||23||Saudi riyal (SAR)||0.854|
|United Arab Emirates||United Arab Emirates||Al-Imārāt al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah||Federal monarchy, Absolute monarchy||9,890,400||83,600||421,142||647,650||12||UAE dirham (AED)||0.890|
The associate membership of Iraq in certain GCC-related institutions was discontinued after the invasion of Kuwait.
Yemen was in negotiations for GCC membership in 2007, and hoped to join by 2016. The GCC has already approved Yemen's accession to the GCC Standardization Authority, Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting (GOIC), GCC Auditing and Accounting Authority, Gulf Radio and TV Authority, The GCC Council of Health Ministers, The GCC Education and Training Bureau, The GCC Council of Labour & and Social Affairs Ministers, and The Gulf Cup Football Tournament. The Council issued directives that all the necessary legal measures be taken so that Yemen would have the same rights and obligations of GCC member states in those institutions.
The union has served as a grouping for sports co-operation and competition. The GCC states have an annual Meeting of the Youth and Sports ministers to boost youth and sports initiatives in the region; in 2015, this gathering was held for the 29th time. The promotion of the hosting of international sports events has also served an economic purpose for the union's countries, leading to investment and development in the region.
The GCC Games, a quadrennial multi-sport event, was established by the union and first held in 2011. There are numerous long-running GCC Championships for individual sports, including: the Gulf Cooperation Council Athletics Championships (first held in 1986; youth section from 2000) sailing, basketball, swimming, tennis, gymnastics (senior and youth levels), weightlifting, futsal, snooker, and table tennis.
2014 Saudi–Qatari rift
Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood across the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, Hamas and radical Islamists in Libya has led to increasing tensions with other Arab states of the Persian Gulf. These tensions came to a head during a March 2014 meeting of the GCC, after which the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain announced the recall of their ambassadors to Qatar.
Some financial economists have interpreted the 2014 Saudi–Qatari rift as a tangible political sign of a growing economic rivalry between oil and natural gas producers, which could "have deep and long-lasting consequences" beyond MENA.
2017 Rift with Qatar
This section needs to be updated. (March 2019)
On 5 June 2017, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Egypt had officially cut diplomatic ties with Qatar. Saudi Arabia said it took the decision to cut diplomatic ties due to Qatar's "embrace of various terrorist and sectarian groups aimed at destabilising the region", including the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaida, ISIL and Iran-supported groups in Saudi Arabia's eastern province of Qatif. Political researcher Islam Hassan viewed this as a continuation of Qatar's foreign policy rivalry with Saudi Arabia and UAE.
In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain put a ban on Qataris and their businesses. Qataris were not allowed to enter or live in these countries unless they have a spouse living there, and they must carry a visa in order to enter these countries. Qatar airways aircraft were also not allowed to fly over these countries and Saudi Arabia stated that they would turn it's land border into a canal, known as the Salwa Canal. On January 6, 2021, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the U. A. E., and Egypt agreed to restore ties with Qatar at the Al-Ula summit.
Iraq is the only Arab country bordering the Persian Gulf that is not a member of the GCC. In 2012, Iraqi Defence Minister Saadoun al-Dulaimi stated that Iraq wanted to join the GCC. Kuwait supports Iraq joining the GCC. The lack of membership of Iraq is widely believed to be due to the low-income economy, its substantial Shia population, its republican political system, and its invasion of member state Kuwait during the Gulf War.
Jordan and Morocco
In May 2011, Jordan's request to join the GCC, which had been first submitted 15 years earlier, was accepted and Morocco was invited to join the union. In September 2011, a five-year economic plan for both countries was put forward after a meeting between the foreign ministers of both countries and those of the GCC states. Although a plan for accession was being looked into, it was noted that there was no timetable for either's accession, and that discussions would continue.
As Jordan and Morocco are the only two Arabic speaking monarchies not currently in the council, the current members see them as strong potential allies. Jordan borders Saudi Arabia and is economically connected to the Persian Gulf States. Although Morocco is not near the Persian Gulf, the Moroccan foreign minister Taieb Fassi Fihri notes that "geographical distance is no obstacle to a strong relationship".
Yemen was in negotiations for GCC membership, and hoped to join by 2015. Although it has no coastline on the Persian Gulf, Yemen lies in the Arabian Peninsula and shares a common culture and history with other GCC members. The GCC has already approved Yemen's accession to the GCC Standardization Authority, Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting (GOIC), GCC Auditing and Accounting Authority, Gulf Radio and TV Authority, GCC Council of Health Ministers, GCC Education and Training Bureau, GCC Council of Labour and Social Affairs Ministers, and Gulf Cup Football Tournament. The Council issued directives that all the necessary legal measures be taken so that Yemen would have the same rights and obligations of GCC member states in those institutions.
In May 2017, the Gulf Cooperation Council rejected the formation of a transitional political council in southern Yemen, which called for the separation of Southern Yemen, siding with Yemen President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi in doing so.
The GCC members and Yemen are also members of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA). However, this is unlikely to affect the agenda of the GCC significantly as it has a more aggressive timetable than GAFTA and is seeking greater integration.
- Arab League
- Arabian Peninsula
- Eastern Arabia
- Peninsula Shield Force
- Khaleeji (currency)
- Gulf Railway
- Qatar diplomatic crisis
- "Gulf Cooperation Council – GCC Countries". The balance. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- "Kuwait hopes emir visit to Iran will boost Gulf peace". Gulf News. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "GCC Charter". Secretariat General of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- Sara Hamdan (4 January 2012). "A Call for Private Investment in Gulf Health Care". New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "U.A.E. Quits Gulf Monetary Union". Wall Street Journal. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
The move represents a rare public rift between members of the GCC, an economic and political union aimed at fostering better ties between the oil-rich Arab states straddling the Persian Gulf.
- "Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)" (PDF). International Relations and Security Network. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "US State Dept's Country Political Profile - Qatar" (PDF).
- "US State Dept's Country Political Profile - Bahrain" (PDF).
- Asma Alsharif (10 May 2011). "1-Gulf bloc to consider Jordan, Morocco membership". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Yemen to join GCC by 2015". Arabian Business. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "GCC Members Consider Future of Union - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Andrew Hammond (17 May 2012). "Analysis: Saudi Gulf union plan stumbles as wary leaders seek detail". Reuters.
- "Saudi Arabia Seeks Union of Monarchies in Region." The New York Times, 14 May 2012.
- "Gulf Union on agenda at annual GCC summit". Al Arabiya News. english.alarabiya.net. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Gulf Union 'crucial for stability'". Gulf Digital News. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "The Gulf Cooperation Council". Rebuild the Middle-East. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- "A Return to Reform in the Gulf Cooperation Council". Stratfor. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Gulf Cooperation Council". Deutsch Federal Foreign Office. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Bandar Salman Al Saud (1997). "The GCC security convention" (PDF). University of Glasgow. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Gulf Cooperation Council | History, Member Countries, Purpose, & Summits". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- Khan, Mohsin S. (April 2009). The GCC Monetary Union: Choice of Exchange Rate Regime (PDF). Washington DC: Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Sturm, Michael; Siegfried, Nikolaus (June 2005). "Regional Monetary Integration in the Member States of the Gulf Cooperation Council" (PDF). Occasional Paper Series. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: European Central Bank. ISSN 1725-6534. Occasional Paper Series, No. 31. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Abed, George T.; Erbas, S. Nuri; Guerami, Behrouz (1 April 2003). "The GCC Monetary Union: Some Considerations for the Exchange Rate Regime" (PDF). Imf Working Paper. Washington DC, USA: International Monetary Fund (IMF). ISSN 1934-7073. Working Paper No. 03/66. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "Gulf Currency". Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Ibrahim Saif; Farah Choucair (14 May 2009). "Arab Countries Stumble in the Face of Growing Economic Crisis". Carnegie Endowment. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- GCC states to launch joint market today Arab Times
- "GCC customs union fully operational". The Peninsula. 3 January 2015. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "GCC 'common market achieves most goals'". The Peninsula. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "GCC Summit: A Show of Unity – Arab News Editorial". Saudi-US Information Service. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "GCC tries to persuade UAE, Oman to join currency talks". Arab News. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "U.A.E. Quits Gulf Monetary Union". The Wall Street Journal.
- "M&A in GCC". Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Biggest Sovereign Wealth Funds in the Middle East". Forbes. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "The GCC and the Supreme Council Summits – Infographics". Saudi-US Relations Information Service. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "GCC Rail Projects To See Investments Worth $200bn". Gulf Business. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "The Organizational Structure". gcc-sg.org/. Gulf Cooperation Council. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "GCC Charter". Secretariat General of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- "مكتب براءات الاختراع بمجلس التعاون الخليجي (GCC Patent Office)". www.gccpo.org. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "(ABC News Australia)". ABC News. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Bahrain protests CNN. 2011
- Gulf forces intervene in Bahrain after violent clashes Daily India.
- Ian Black (14 May 2012). "Gulf unity plan on hold amid Iranian warning". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- "Kuwait naval units join Bahrain mission ... 'Plot foiled'". Arab Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "Gulf bloc: Qatar, UAE in coalition striking Libya". Chennai, India. The Hindu. 21 March 2011.
- Spencer, Richard (11 September 2014). "10 Arab states join the US in battle against Isil". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia Will Host Training Camps For Syrian Rebels". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- GSO homepage. http://www.gso.org.sa/gso-website/gso-website/about-gso/about/member-countries
- GOIC homepage. http://www.goic.org.qa/
- "Bishara, Abdullah". Rulers. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Profile". ECSSR. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Malcolm C. Peck (12 April 2010). The A to Z of the Gulf Arab States. Scarecrow Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-8108-7636-1. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Toumi, Habib (29 November 2009). "Oman endorses Al Mutawa". Gulf News. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Population, total - Bahrain". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- "Final Results of Census 2010" (PDF). National Center for Statistics & Information. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
- "Population structure". Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics. 31 January 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
- "The total population – General Authority for Statistics". stats.gov.sa. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- "UN Stats". UN.org. United Nations. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
- GCC Youth and Sports Ministers meet in Doha Archived 7 April 2015 at archive.today. The Peninsula Qatar (2015-03-05). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Sports sector becoming growth driver in the GCC Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Saudi Gazette (2014-11-08). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Sambridge, Andy (2011-04-07). Bahrain to host first GCC Games in October. Arabian Business. Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Gulf Cooperation Council Athletics Championships. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- 6th GCC Sailing Championships 2014, Qatar. Icarus Sailing Media. Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- GCC 3x3 Basketball championship to conclude on Saturday Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Qatar Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Swimmers sparkle in GCC Championships Archived 16 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Qatar Olympic Committee (2013-04-14). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Preparations on for GCC championships . Gulf Daily News (2014-10-29). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Arab Gymnastic officials applaud GCC Men's Gymnastics Championship. Kuwait News Agency (2012-02-24). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Qatar top ’em all at GCC Championships Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Doha Stadium Plus Qatar (2014-02-26). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Oman's Suhail al Kulaibi walks and lifts his way to glory. International Weightlifting Federation (2012-02-26). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Kuwait wins GCC Futsal Championship Title Archived 23 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Qatar Olympic Committee (2015-03-18). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- UAE extend lease over GCC title. UAE Interact (2005-01-03). Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- Kuwait Passes Tests with Honours as Bahrain Sets Tests for Global Gathering Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. International Table Tennis Federation. Retrieved on 2015-03-20.
- David Blair and Richard Spencer (20 September 2014). "How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Hamas's BFFs". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (7 September 2014). "Qatar's Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far." New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "3 Gulf Countries Pull Ambassadors From Qatar Over Its Support of Islamists". The New York Times. 5 March 2014.
- "gulfnews.com: "UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain recall their ambassadors from Qatar" 5 Mar 2014". Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain withdraw envoys from Qatar". CNN. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia and UAE block Qatari media over Emir's Israel and Iran comments". newsweek.com. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (6 April 2014). "A GCC House Divided: Country Risk Implications of the Saudi-Qatari Rift". Al-Hayat. London. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Four countries cut links with Qatar over 'terrorism' support". BBC News. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Wintour, Patrick; Doherty, Ben (5 June 2017). "Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Bahrain and Yemen cut ties with Qatar". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Qatar Pursues an Independent Foreign Policy that Clashes with the Saudi's Strategic Interests". Eurasia Diary. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Saudi Diplomatic Offensive on Qatar to Barely Impact Anti-Terror Fight in Region". Sputnik International. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Barnard, Anne (7 June 2017). "Terrorist Attacks Pour Gas on Saudi- Iranian Rivalry and Gulf Tensions". Eurasia Diary. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Yahoo! "GCC discusses economic plan for Jordan, Morocco". 11 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Mu Xuequan (1 November 2011). "Bahrain keen on Egypt's GCC membership". Gulf News. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Dulaimi confirmed that Iraq sought to join the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)". Archived from the original on 28 May 2013.
- "Kuwait stresses necessity for Iraq to join GCC". Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "GCC states slam Iran interference in region." Al Jazeera. 25 December 2012.
- Mu Xuequan (11 May 2011). "GCC welcomes Jordan's request to join the council". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- Al-Rantawi, Oraib (17 July 2011). "GCC membership may be a burden on Jordan's security". Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Yemen joined GOIC in 2009". Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- See the Closing Statement of the Twenty-Second Session Archived 12 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine GCC the Final Communiqué of the 29th Session Archived 12 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "GCC rejects formation of Yemen transitional council". Aljazeera. Retrieved 17 May 2017.