Cork City was a parliamentary constituency in Ireland, represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From 1880 to 1922 it returned two members of parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. From 1922 it was not represented in the UK Parliament, as it was no longer in the UK.
Cork City was the only constituency in Ireland to return the same number of members, in each general election, from the Act of Union in 1801 until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922.
This constituency comprised the whole of the County of the City of Cork, which was part of County Cork. Cork had the status of a county of itself, although it remained connected with County Cork for certain purposes.
The definition of the constituency boundary, from the Parliamentary Boundaries (Ireland) Act 1832 (c. 89 2& 3 Will. 4), was as follows.
The County of the City of Cork.
A Topographical Directory of Ireland, published in 1837, describes the area covered.
The county of the city comprises a populous rural district of great beauty and fertility, watered by several small rivulets and intersected by the river Lee and its noble estuary: it is bounded on the north by the barony of Fermoy, on the east by that of Barrymore, on the south by Kerricurrihy, and on the west by Muskerry: it comprehends the parishes of St. Finbarr, Christ-Church or the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, St. Mary Shandon, St. Anne Shandon, St. Paul and St. Nicholas, all, except part of St. Finbarr's, within the city and suburbs, and those of Curricuppane, Carrigrohanemore, Kilcully, and Rathcoony, together with parts of the parishes of Killanully or Killingly, Carrigaline, Dunbullogue or Carrignavar, Ballinaboy, Inniskenny, Kilnaglory, White-church, and Templemichael, without those limits; and contains, according to the Ordnance survey, an area of 44,463 statute acres, of which, 2396 are occupied by the city and suburbs.
The Directory also has a passage on the representative history. Other, more modern, sources ascribe an earlier date to the start of the parliamentary representation of Cork; but the passage is useful for information about the 19th century position.
The city first sent members to the Irish parliament in 1374, but representatives who appear to have served in London were chosen previously. The right of election was vested in the freemen of the city, and in the 40s. freeholders and £50 leaseholders of the county of the city, of whom the freemen, in 1831, amounted in number to 2331, and the freeholders to 1545, making a total of 3876; but by the act of the 2nd of Wm. IV., cap. 88 (under which the city, from its distinguished importance, retains its privilege of returning two representatives to the Imperial parliament, and the limits of the franchise, comprising the entire county of the city, remain unaltered), the non-resident freemen, except within seven miles, have been disfranchised, and the privilege of voting at elections has been extended to the £10 householders, and the £20 and £10 leaseholders for the respective terms of 14 and 20 years. The number of voters registered up to Jan. 2nd, 1836, amounted to 4791, of whom 1065 were freemen; 2727 £10 householders; 105 £50, 152 £20, and 608 forty-shilling freeholders; 3 £50, 7 £20, and 2 £10 rent-chargers; and 1 £50, 26 £20, and 95 £10 leaseholders: the sheriffs are the returning officers.
The County of the City of Cork corresponds to the current barony of Cork.
Members of Parliament
|Date||First member||First party||Second member||Second party|
||1801, 1 January
||Hon. John Hely-Hutchinson||Whig
||1802, 8 January
||Hon. Christopher Hely-Hutchinson||Whig|
||1812, 5 November
||Sir Nicholas Colthurst, Bt||Tory|
||1818, 13 July
||Hon. Christopher Hely-Hutchinson||Whig|
||1826, 29 December
||1829, 9 July
||1830, 29 March
||1830, 11 August
||Hon. John Boyle||Whig|
||1831, 7 May
||1832, 21 December
||Dr. Herbert Baldwin||Repeal Association|
||1835, 17 January
||James Charles Chatterton||Conservative|
||1835, 18 April
||Daniel Callaghan||Repeal Association
||Dr. Herbert Baldwin||Repeal Association|
||1837, 11 August
||Francis Beamish||Repeal Association|
||1841, 5 July
||1846, 31 January
||Alexander McCarthy||Repeal Association|
||1847, 9 August
||William Trant Fagan||Repeal Association|
||1849, 4 November
||James Charles Chatterton||Conservative|
||1851, 23 April
||1852, 14 July
||William Trant Fagan||Ind. Irish
||1853, 20 August
||1857, 28 March
||1859, 6 June
||1859, 29 June
||1865, 14 February
||Nicholas Daniel Murphy||Liberal|
||1865, 12 July
||1872, 10 December
||Joseph Philip Ronayne||Home Rule League|
||1874, 6 February
||Home Rule League|
||1876, 25 May
||1880, 5 April
||John Daly||Home Rule League
||Charles Stewart Parnell||Home Rule League|
||1884, 23 February
||John Deasy||Irish Parliamentary|
||1885, 27 November
||1891, 6 November
||1892, 6 July
||1895, 27 June
||J. F. X. O'Brien
||1900, 4 October
||1904, 1 January
||1904, 19 August
||1905, 14 June
||1909, 1 May
||1910, 18 January
||1910, 6 December
||1914, 18 February
||James J. Walsh
||Liam de Róiste
Candidates referred to as Non Partisan, did not have a party allegiance specified in either Stooks Smith or Walker (see reference section below for the sources) or capable of being inferred by disaggregating different groups incorporated under one label by Walker (such as Whigs before 1859 being listed as Liberals).
In multi-member elections, a change in vote percentage is only calculated for individual candidates not for parties. No attempt is made to compare changes between single member by-elections and previous or subsequent multi-member elections.
Turnouts, in multi-member elections from 1832, are calculated on the basis of the number of electors Stooks Smith records as voting. In some cases estimated turnouts are obtained by dividing the ballots cast by two, to obtain the lowest possible turnout figure. To the extent that electors did not use both their votes, the estimate will be less than the actual turnout.
Elections of the 1910s
- The constituency ceased to be represented in the United Kingdom Parliament, upon the dissolution of the House of Commons, in 1922. This was a few days before the Irish Free State came into existence.
- The count took place on 28 December 1918, to allow time for postal votes from the armed forces to arrive. The Sinn Féin MPs did not take their seats at Westminster.
- Redmond and Roche were associated with the United Irish League wing of Irish Nationalism.
- William O'Brien resigned again for a fourth time in January 1914 and re-stood to test local support for his policies, after the All-for-Ireland League suffered heavy defeats in the Cork City municipal elections.
- Roche and Murphy were associated with the United Irish League wing of Irish Nationalism.
Elections of the 1900s
- Cosbie was associated with the United Irish League wing of Irish Nationalism
- William O'Brien resigned for a third time in 1909.
- William O'Brien was elected "without his knowledge and against his consent".
- Death of J. F. X. O'Brien, in 1905.
- William O'Brien resigned again in January 1904.
- The Irish National Federation, the Irish National League and William O'Brien's United Irish League joined forces, to re-create the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), in 1900. Healy contested the 1900 general election as an Independent Nationalist, after forming a Healyite faction, outside the IPP.
Elections of the 1890s
- Resignation of William O'Brien
- The Irish Parliamentary Party split in December 1890. Parnell led the Irish National League, Parnellite Nationalist group. Most of the IPP MPs (including Healy) set up the Irish National Federation as the Anti-Parnellite Nationalist organisation.
- Parnell died in office.
Elections of the 1880s
- Caused by Daly's resignation.
- 1882: Home Rule League/Nationalist Party becomes the Irish Parliamentary Party
Elections of the 1870s
- Death of Ronayne, on 7 May 1876
- Death of Maguire (founder Cork Examiner), on 1 November 1872
Elections of the 1860s
Elections of the 1850s
- Appointment of Murphy as a Commissioner of Insolvency
Elections of the 1840s
Elections of the 1830s
- Note: On petition Leycester and Chatterton were unseated and Callaghan and Baldwin were declared duly elected, on 18 April 1835.
- Caused by Callaghan's election in 1829 being declared void.
- Note: Daniel Callaghan was the brother of Gerrard Callaghan. Stooks Smith classifies Callaghan as a Repealer from this election, but this may not be an accurate description for the period before 1832. See the footnote to the above table of MPs for a brief description of Callaghan's political views.
Elections of the 1820s
- Election of Callaghan declared void, on petition
By-Election 9 July 1829: Cork City
||Sir Augustus Warren, 3rd Baronet
By-Election 29 December 1826: Cork City
Elections of the 1810s
Elections of the 1800s
- 1801, 1 January Irish House of Commons members nominated to sit in the corresponding House of Parliament at Westminster
- Elevated to the peerage as the 1st Baron Hutchinson, 1801
- Smith, Henry Stooks (1842). The Register of Parliamentary Contested Elections (Second ed.). Simpkin, Marshall & Company. pp. 220–221. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via Google Books.
- Died in office, 1829
- Died in office, 1826
- Election declared void
- Who's Who of British members of parliament: Volume I 1832–1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976); described Callaghan as being of Whig principles, except on Irish Coercion Bills. He was the grandfather of Admiral George Callaghan.
- Walker, B.M., ed. (1978). Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0901714127.
- name="Unseated on petition"
- Seated on petition. Joint candidate of the Whig Party and Repeal Association in 1835 and 1837. Died in office, 1849.
- "City Representation". Cork Examiner. 21 July 1847. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Seated on petition. Joint candidate of the Whig Party and Repeal Association in 1835.
- Joint candidate of the Whig Party and Repeal Association in 1837.
- Resigned, 1851
- "Ireland". Hereford Times. 26 April 1851. p. 3. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Cork Election". Newry Examiner and Louth Advertiser. 26 April 1851. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The General Election". London Evening Standard. 12 July 1852. p. 4. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Aris's Birmingham Gazette". 29 August 1853. p. 1. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- MikeMCSG. "47 William Trant Fagan". Clarke Chronicler's Politicians. p. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "The New Parliament". Dublin Weekly Nation. 18 April 1857. p. 8. Retrieved 23 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Resigned, 1865
- Re-elected as a Liberal at the 1865 and 1868 general elections. Returned as a Home Ruler at the 1874 election.
- Died in office, 1872
- Died in office, 1876
- A member of the Parnellite faction of the Home Rule League in 1880. Resigned as MP, 1884.
- Leader of the Parnellite faction of the Home Rule League. Re-elected as an Irish Parliamentary Party candidate in 1885 and 1886, he led the Parnellite Nationalists after the split in 1890 until he died in office in 1891.
- The by-election in August 1904 was triggered by William O'Brien resigned his seat on 1 January 1904, and stood for re-election. He was returned unopposed.
- At the January 1910 general election, O'Brien was elected for both Cork City and North East Cork. He chose to sit for Cork City.
- William O'Brien had been elected as an All-for-Ireland League candidate, but resigned his seat on 19 January 1914, and stood for re-election as an independent nationalist. He was returned unopposed.
- The Times (London), Saturday, 27 August 1904 p. 8 col. C
- "Tipperary Vindicator". 17 November 1849. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 20 August 2019 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Salmon, Philip. "Cork". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844–50), 2nd edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
- Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801–1922, edited by B.M. Walker (Royal Irish Academy 1978), Cork History and Society Patrick O'Flanagan/ Cornelius G. Buttimer Geography Publications 1993
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" (part 5)