Corruption Perceptions Index


The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Berlin-based Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector[1] corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[2] The CPI generally defines corruption as an "abuse of entrusted power for private gain".[3]

Map showing countries and territories according to the Corruption Perceptions Index, 2020, in ascending order.
  90–99
  80–89
  70–79
  60–69
  50–59
  40–49
  30–39
  20–29
  10–19
  0–9
  Data unavailable

The 2020 CPI, published in January of 2021, currently ranks 180 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)" based on the situation between May 2019 and May 2020.[4][5] In the list, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, Singapore and Switzerland are perceived as the top 6 least corrupt nations in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, scoring 8–10 out of 100 since 2012.[6] South Sudan is also perceived as one of the most corrupt countries in the world due to constant social and economic crises, ranking an average score of 13 out of 100 in 2018.[7]

Methods


Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[8] The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[9] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[3] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[10] The institutions are:[11]

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[10] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[12]

Validity

A study published in 2012 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and an overabundance of regulation.[13]

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[13] (Note that a lower on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implications


Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[14] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[15] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings


Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
99–90 89–80 79–70 69–60 59–50 49–40 39-30 29–20 19–10 9–0

2012–2020

2012–2020 Corruption Perceptions Index table[16]
Rank Nation or Territory 2020[17] 2019[18] 2018[19] 2017[20] 2016[21] 2015[22] 2014[23] 2013[24] 2012[25]
Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score Delta Score
1 Denmark
88
1
87
1
88
88
2
90
1
91
1
92
1
91
1
90
1 New Zealand
88
1
87
87
2
89
1
90
1
91
91
91
1
90
3 Finland
85
1
86
1
85
85
4
89
1
90
1
89
89
1
90
3 Singapore
85
85
85
1
84
84
1
85
1
84
2
86
1
87
3 Sweden
85
85
85
1
84
4
88
1
89
2
87
2
89
1
88
3  Switzerland
85
85
85
85
1
86
86
86
1
85
1
86
7 Norway
84
84
84
1
85
85
2
87
1
86
86
1
85
8 Netherlands
82
82
82
82
1
83
4
87
4
83
83
1
84
9 Germany
80
80
80
1
81
81
81
2
79
1
78
1
79
9 Luxembourg
80
80
1
81
1
82
1
81
81
1
82
2
80
80
11 Australia
77
77
77
77
2
79
79
1
80
1
81
4
85
11 Canada
77
77
4
81
1
82
82
1
83
2
81
81
3
84
11 Hong Kong
77
1
76
76
1
77
77
2
75
1
74
1
75
2
77
11 United Kingdom
77
77
3
80
2
82
1
81
81
3
78
2
76
2
74
15 Austria
76
1
77
1
76
1
75
75
1
76
4
72
3
69
69
15 Belgium
76
1
75
75
75
2
77
77
1
76
1
75
75
17 Estonia
75
1
74
1
73
2
71
1
70
70
1
69
1
68
4
64
17 Iceland
75
3
78
2
76
1
77
1
78
1
79
79
1
78
4
82
19 Japan
74
1
73
73
73
1
72
3
75
1
76
2
74
74
20 South Korea
72
2
74
1
73
1
74
1
73
2
75
1
74
2
72
3
69
21 Ireland
71
71
1
70
1
71
5
66
4
70
70
1
69
1
68
21 Uruguay
71
71
1
70
70
1
71
3
74
1
73
73
1
72
23 France
69
69
3
72
2
70
1
69
1
70
1
69
2
71
71
24 Bhutan
68
68
68
1
67
2
65
65
65
2
63
63
25 Chile
67
67
67
67
1
66
4
70
3
73
2
71
1
72
25 United States
67
2
69
2
71
4
75
1
74
2
76
2
74
1
73
73
27 Taiwan
66
66
66
6
60
5
55
55
1
54
2
52
28 United Arab Emirates
65
65
2
63
63
2
61
1
62
1
61
61
61
29 Barbados
64
2
62
6
68
68
7
61
74
1
75
1
76
30 Bahamas
63
1
64
1
65
65
1
66
71
71
71
30 Qatar
63
1
62
62
1
63
2
61
10
71
2
69
1
68
68
32 Spain
62
62
4
58
1
57
1
58
58
2
60
1
59
6
65
33 Seychelles
61
2
59
2
57
3
54
1
53
3
56
1
55
55
1
56
33 Portugal
61
1
62
2
64
1
63
1
62
1
63
63
1
62
1
63
35 Botswana
60
1
61
61
61
1
60
3
63
63
1
64
1
65
35 Brunei
60
60
3
63
1
62
4
58
60
5
55
35 Israel
60
60
1
61
1
62
2
64
3
61
1
60
1
61
1
60
35 Lithuania
60
60
1
59
59
59
2
61
3
58
1
57
3
54
35 Slovenia
60
60
60
1
61
61
1
60
2
58
1
57
4
61
40 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
59
59
1
58
58
2
60
67
5
62
62
41 Cape Verde
58
58
1
57
2
55
4
59
4
55
2
57
1
58
2
60
42 Costa Rica
57
1
56
56
3
59
1
58
3
55
1
54
1
53
1
54
42 Cyprus
57
1
58
1
59
2
57
2
55
6
61
2
63
63
3
66
42 Latvia
57
1
56
2
58
58
1
57
2
55
55
2
53
4
49
45 Georgia
56
56
2
58
2
56
1
57
5
52
52
3
49
3
52
45 Poland
56
2
58
2
60
60
2
62
62
1
61
1
60
2
58
45 Saint Lucia
56
1
55
55
55
5
60
71
71
48 Dominica
55
55
2
57
57
2
59
58
58
58
49 Czech Republic
54
2
56
3
59
2
57
2
55
1
56
5
51
3
48
1
49
49 Oman
54
2
52
52
8
44
1
45
45
45
2
47
47
49 Rwanda
54
1
53
3
56
1
55
1
54
54
5
49
4
53
53
52 Grenada
53
53
1
52
52
4
56
52 Italy
53
53
1
52
2
50
3
47
3
44
1
43
43
1
42
52 Malta
53
1
54
54
2
56
1
55
1
56
1
55
1
56
1
57
52 Mauritius
53
1
52
1
51
1
50
4
54
1
53
1
54
2
52
5
57
52 Saudi Arabia
53
53
4
49
49
3
46
6
52
3
49
3
46
2
44
57 Malaysia
51
2
53
6
47
47
2
49
1
50
2
52
2
50
1
49
57 Namibia
51
1
52
1
53
2
51
1
52
1
53
4
49
1
48
48
59 Greece
50
2
48
3
45
3
48
4
44
2
46
3
43
3
40
4
36
60 Armenia
49
7
42
7
35
35
2
33
2
35
2
37
1
36
2
34
60 Jordan
49
1
48
1
49
1
48
48
5
53
4
49
4
45
3
48
60 Slovakia
49
1
50
50
50
1
51
51
1
50
3
47
1
46
63 Belarus
47
2
45
1
44
44
4
40
8
32
1
31
2
29
2
31
63 Croatia
47
47
1
48
1
49
49
2
51
3
48
48
2
46
63 Cuba
47
1
48
1
47
47
47
47
1
46
46
2
48
63 São Tomé and Príncipe
47
1
46
46
46
46
4
42
42
42
42
67 Montenegro
45
45
45
1
46
1
45
1
44
2
42
2
44
3
41
67 Senegal
45
45
45
45
45
1
44
1
43
2
41
5
36
69 Bulgaria
44
1
43
1
42
1
43
2
41
41
2
43
2
41
41
69 Hungary
44
44
2
46
1
45
3
48
3
51
3
54
54
1
55
69 Jamaica
44
1
43
1
44
44
5
39
2
41
3
38
38
38
69 Romania
44
44
3
47
1
48
48
2
46
3
43
43
1
44
69 South Africa
44
44
1
43
43
2
45
1
44
44
2
42
1
43
69 Tunisia
44
1
43
43
1
42
1
41
3
38
2
40
1
41
41
75 Ghana
43
2
41
41
1
40
3
43
4
47
1
48
2
46
1
45
75 Maldives
43
14
29
2
31
2
33
3
36
75 Vanuatu
43
3
46
46
3
43
78 Argentina
42
3
45
5
40
1
39
3
36
4
32
2
34
34
1
35
78 Bahrain
42
42
6
36
36
7
43
8
51
2
49
1
48
3
51
78 China
42
1
41
2
39
2
41
1
40
3
37
1
36
4
40
1
39
78 Kuwait
42
2
40
1
41
2
39
2
41
8
49
5
44
1
43
1
44
78 Solomon Islands
42
42
2
44
5
39
3
42
83 Benin
41
41
1
40
1
39
3
36
1
37
2
39
3
36
36
83 Guyana
41
1
40
3
37
1
38
4
34
5
29
1
30
3
27
1
28
83 Lesotho
41
1
40
1
41
1
42
3
39
5
44
5
49
49
4
45
86 Burkina Faso
40
40
1
41
1
42
42
4
38
38
38
38
86 Thailand
40
1
41
41
1
40
40
2
38
38
2
36
36
86 Morocco
40
1
41
2
43
3
40
3
37
1
36
3
39
2
37
37
86 Timor-Leste
40
2
38
3
35
3
38
3
35
7
28
28
2
30
3
33
86 Trinidad and Tobago
40
40
1
41
41
6
35
4
39
1
38
38
1
39
86 Turkey
40
1
39
2
41
1
40
1
41
1
42
3
45
5
50
1
49
92 Colombia
39
2
37
1
36
1
37
37
37
37
1
36
36
92 Ecuador
39
1
38
4
34
2
32
1
31
1
32
1
33
2
35
3
32
94 Brazil
38
3
35
35
2
37
3
40
2
38
5
43
1
42
1
43
94 Ethiopia
38
1
37
3
34
1
35
1
34
1
33
33
33
33
94 Kazakhstan
38
4
34
3
31
31
2
29
1
28
1
29
3
26
2
28
94 Peru
38
2
36
1
35
2
37
2
35
1
36
2
38
38
38
94 Serbia
38
1
39
39
2
41
1
42
2
40
1
41
1
42
3
39
94 Sri Lanka
38
38
38
38
2
36
1
37
1
38
1
37
3
40
94 Suriname
38
6
44
1
43
2
41
4
45
9
36
36
36
1
37
94 Tanzania
38
1
37
1
36
36
4
32
2
30
1
31
2
33
2
35
102 Gambia
37
37
37
7
30
4
26
2
28
1
29
1
28
6
34
102 Indonesia
37
3
40
2
38
1
37
37
1
36
2
34
2
32
32
104 Albania
36
1
35
1
36
2
38
1
39
3
36
3
33
2
31
2
33
104 Algeria
36
1
35
35
2
33
1
34
2
36
36
36
2
34
104 Ivory Coast
36
1
35
35
1
36
2
34
2
32
32
5
27
2
29
104 El Salvador
36
2
34
1
35
2
33
3
36
3
39
39
1
38
38
104 Kosovo
36
36
1
37
2
39
3
36
3
33
33
33
1
34
104 India
36
36
36
1
37
2
35
3
38
38
3
35
2
37
104 Vietnam
36
1
37
4
33
2
35
2
33
2
31
31
31
31
111 Bosnia and Herzegovina
35
1
36
2
38
38
1
39
1
38
1
39
3
42
42
111 Mongolia
35
35
2
37
1
36
2
38
1
39
39
1
38
2
36
111 North Macedonia
35
35
2
37
2
35
2
37
5
42
3
45
1
44
1
43
111 Panama
35
1
36
1
37
37
1
38
1
39
2
37
2
35
3
38
115 Moldova
34
2
32
1
33
2
31
1
30
3
33
2
35
35
1
36
115 Philippines
34
34
2
36
2
34
1
35
35
3
38
2
36
2
34
117 Egypt
33
2
35
35
3
32
2
34
2
36
1
37
5
32
32
117 Eswatini
33
1
34
4
38
1
39
4
43
4
39
2
37
117   Nepal
33
1
34
3
31
31
2
29
2
27
2
29
2
31
4
27
117 Sierra Leone
33
33
3
30
30
30
1
29
2
31
1
30
1
31
117 Ukraine
33
3
30
2
32
2
30
1
29
2
27
1
26
1
25
1
26
117 Zambia
33
1
34
1
35
2
37
1
38
38
38
38
1
37
123 Niger
32
32
2
34
1
33
2
35
1
34
1
35
1
34
1
33
124 Bolivia
31
31
2
29
4
33
33
1
34
1
35
1
34
34
124 Kenya
31
3
28
1
27
1
28
2
26
1
25
25
2
27
27
124 Kyrgyzstan
31
1
30
1
29
29
1
28
28
1
27
3
24
24
124 Mexico
31
2
29
1
28
1
29
1
30
5
35
35
1
34
34
124 Pakistan
31
1
32
1
33
1
32
32
2
30
1
29
1
28
1
27
129 Azerbaijan
30
30
5
25
6
31
1
30
1
29
29
1
28
1
27
129 Gabon
30
1
31
31
1
32
3
35
1
34
3
37
3
34
1
35
129 Malawi
30
1
31
1
32
1
31
31
31
2
33
4
37
37
129 Mali
30
1
29
3
32
1
31
1
32
3
35
3
32
4