Cotswolds

The Cotswolds (/ˈkɒtswldz/ KOTS-wohldz, /-wəldz/ -wəldz[1]) is an area in south-central, West Midlands and South West England comprising the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills that rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale.

Cotswolds
Castle Combe, a typical Cotswolds village made with Cotswold stone
Location of the Cotswolds within England
LocationEngland
Coordinates51°48′N 2°2′W
Area2,038 km2 (787 sq mi)
Established1966
Named forcot + wold, ’sheep enclosure in rolling hillsides’
Websitewww.cotswoldsaonb.org.uk

The area is defined by the bedrock of Jurassic limestone that creates a type of grassland habitat rare in the UK and that is quarried for the golden-coloured Cotswold stone.[2] It contains unique features derived from the use of this stone; the predominantly rural landscape contains stone-built villages, historical towns and stately homes and gardens.

Designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) in 1966,[3] the Cotswolds covers 787 square miles (2,040 km2) and, after the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales national parks, is the third largest protected landscape in England[4] and the largest AONB.[5] Its boundaries are roughly 25 miles (40 km) across and 90 miles (140 km) long, stretching southwest from just south of Stratford-upon-Avon to just south of Bath near Radstock. It lies across the boundaries of several English counties; mainly Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, and parts of Wiltshire, Somerset, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire. The highest point of the region is Cleeve Hill at 1,083 ft (330 m),[6] just east of Cheltenham.

The hills give their name to the Cotswold local government district, formed on 1 April 1974, which is within the county of Gloucestershire. Its main town is Cirencester, where the Cotswold District Council offices are located.[7] The population of the 450-square-mile (1,200 km2) District was about 83,000 in 2011.[8][9] The much larger area referred to as the Cotswolds encompasses nearly 800 square miles (2,100 km2),[10] over five counties: Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, and Worcestershire.[11] The population of the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty was 139,000 in 2016.[12]