Country code top-level domain


A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.

In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today, ccTLDs make up 40% of the total domain name industry.[1] Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered first extensions that year were .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), and .il (Israel).[2] There are 308 delegated ccTLDs. The .cn, .tk, .de and .uk ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains. The top ten ccTLDs account for 64.3% of registered ccTLD domains and there were 156.5 million ccTLD domains registered at the end of March 2021.[3]

Delegation and management


IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs.[4] Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History


The first registered ccTLD was .no, which was registered in 1983. Later ccTLDs registered were .us, .uk, and .il in 1985, then followed by .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .is, .kr, .nl, and .se were also registered in 1986.[5]

Lists


As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. This number is 316, As of June 2020, with the addition of internationalized domains.[6]

Latin Character ccTLDs

Table columns – legend
Name  DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for the European Union, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland instead of ".gb". ISO codes bv, bl, mf, sj, gb, and um are not used for country code top-level domains.
Entity  Country, dependency, or region
Explanation  Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German language name for Germany).
Notes  General remarks
Registry  Domain name registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC)
IDN  Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC  Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD  Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply)
IPv6  Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Overview of Latin-character country-code TLDs
Name[7] Entity Explanation Notes Registry[7] IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac Ascension Island (United Kingdom) Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Ascension Island Network Information Centre (run by Internet Computer Bureau) YesYesYesYes
.ad Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[8][9] Nic.ad NoYesYes
.ae United Arab Emirates .aeDA NoNoYes
.af Afghanistan NoYesYes
.ag Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft). NoYesYes
.ai Anguilla (United Kingdom)Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence). NoNoYes
.al Albania Citizenship no longer required. NoNoYes
.am ArmeniaAlso unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business. NoYesYesYes
.ao Angola NoNoUn­known
.aq AntarcticaAntarctiqueDefined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ?NoYes?
.ar Argentina Spanish[upper-alpha 1]YesYesYes
.as American Samoa (United States) In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain. YesNoYes
.at Austria Nic.atYes[upper-alpha 2]YesYesYes
.au Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[12] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. NoYesNoYes
.aw Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands)Aruba, West IndiesRestricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens NoYesYes
.ax Åland (Finland).al and .ad already allocated NoYesYes
.az AzerbaijanOnly for Residents. Has no WHOIS-Server. NoYesYesYes
.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina NoNoYes
.bb Barbados NoNoYes
.bd BangladeshFor individuals, registrant must have a valid NID. For companies, registrant must have company or trademark registered in Bangladesh. YesNoYes
.be BelgiumAlso unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[13]YesYesYes[14]
.bf Burkina Faso NoNoYes
.bg BulgariaSee also .бг (.bg in cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD YesYesYes
.bh Bahrain NoYesYes
.bi Burundi NoNoYes
.bj Benin.be, .bn, and .bi already allocated NoNoYes
.bm Bermuda (United Kingdom)Local corporate registration required NoYesYes
.bn Brunei NoNoNo
.bo Bolivia NoNoYes
.bq Caribbean Netherlands ( Bonaire,  Saba, and  Sint Eustatius).be and .bs already allocatedNot used.
.br BrazilRestricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.).[15] Yes[16]YesNo[upper-alpha 3]
.bs Bahamas NoNoYes
.bt BhutanMust have local presence in Bhutan, and valid trade license[17] NoYesNo
.bw BotswanaMay also be used for the Province of Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgium NoYesYes
.by BelarusByelorussiaAlso unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany NoYesYes
.bz BelizeAlso unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) NoYesYes
.ca CanadaSubject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Also unofficially used by some websites in the U.S. state of California. French[18]YesYes
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. YesYesYes
.cd Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo, Democratic RepublicAlso unofficially used for Compact disc-related domains. NoNoYes
.cf Central African RepublicAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[19]NoYes
.cg Republic of the Congo NoNoYes
.ch  SwitzerlandConfoederatio Helvetica Yes[upper-alpha 4]YesYes
.ci Ivory CoastCôte d'Ivoire NoNoYes
.ck Cook Islands NoNoYes
.cl Chile YesYesYesYes
.cm CameroonA local entity / company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. NoNoYes
.cn People's Republic of ChinaA local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.

Also unofficially used for Cartoon Network-related domains.

YesYesYesYes
.co ColombiaMarketed as a global domain. Anyone can register. NoYesYes
.cr Costa Rica NoYesYes
.cu Cuba NoNoYes
.cv Cape VerdeAlso unofficially used for curriculum vitae-related domains. NoNoYes
.cw Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands)Curaçao, West Indies NoUn­known
.cx Christmas IslandChristmas XmasMade infamous from Goatse.cx NoYesYes
.cy Cyprus NoNoNo
.cz Czech Republic No[upper-alpha 5]YesYes
.de GermanyDeutschlandGerman postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. DENICYes[upper-alpha 6]YesYesYes
.dj DjiboutiAlso unofficially used by disc jockeys. NoNoYes
.dk DenmarkDanmark Yes[upper-alpha 7]YesYesYes
.dm Dominica NoNoYes
.do Dominican Republic NoNoYes
.dz AlgeriaEl Djazair / Dzayer NoYesYes
.ec EcuadorIn Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".[24] NoNoYes
.ee EstoniaEesti Yes[upper-alpha 8]YesYes
.eg Egypt NoNoYes
.eh Western SaharaEspañol SaharaUnassigned NoNoNo
.er Eritrea NoYes
.es SpainEspaña Yes[26]YesYes
.et Ethiopia NoYesNo
.eu European UnionRestricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[upper-alpha 9]YesYesYes[28]
.fi FinlandRegistration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[upper-alpha 10]YesYesYes
.fj Fiji NoNoYes
.fk Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) NoNoNo
.fm Federated States of MicronesiaAlso unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. Emoji[30]YesYes
.fo Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark)royar NoYesYes
.fr FranceRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.ga GabonAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[32]NoYes
.gd Grenada NoYesYes
.ge GeorgiaAvailable for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant).[33] NoNoYes
.gf French Guiana (France)Guyane Française NoNo
.gg Guernsey (United Kingdom).gu, .gs, and .gy already allocatedAlso unofficially used by video game related websites (see GG (gaming)) Yes[34]NoYes
.gh Ghana NoNoNo
.gi Gibraltar (United Kingdom) NoYesYes
.gl Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark)Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now [[.gal]] has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 NoYesYes
.gm The GambiaDomain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. NoNoYes
.gn GuineaA local contact is required NoYesNo
.gp Guadeloupe (France)Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin NoNoYes
.gq Equatorial GuineaGuinée équatorialeAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[35]No
.gr Greece Yes[upper-alpha 12]YesYes
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom) NoYesYes
.gt Guatemala YesNoYesYes
.gu Guam (United States)Registry has been closed since 2017. NoNoNo
.gw Guinea-BissauGine-Bisaawo NoYesYes
.gy Guyana NoYesYes
.hk Hong Kong YesYesYes
.hm Heard Island and McDonald IslandsUnused for its intended purposes (islands are uninhabited and government sites instead use .aq); registry open to the public. NoNoYes
.hn Honduras NoYesYes
.hr CroatiaHrvatska NoYesYes
.ht Haiti YesNoYes
.hu HungaryCitizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU Yes[37]YesYes
.id IndonesiaRestricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[38] PANDI (run by Kominfo) YesYesYes
.ie IrelandIn 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[39][40] YesYesYesYes
.il Israel YesYesYes
.im Isle of Man (United Kingdom) NoNoYes
.in IndiaUnder INRegistry since April 2005 (except for gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). Yes[41]YesYesYes
.io British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom)Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input / output that is useful for domain hacks. NIC.IO (run by Internet Computer Bureau) YesYesYes
.iq Iraq NoPartial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.ir Iran YesNoYes
.is IcelandÍslandAlso unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example it.is, that.is, etc.). YesYesYes
.it ItalyRestricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[42]Yes[43]YesYes
.je Jersey (United Kingdom) Yes[44]NoYes
.jm Jamaica NoNoNo
.jo Jordan NoYes
.jp JapanRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. YesYesYesYes[45]
.ke Kenya NoYesNo
.kg Kyrgyzstan NoYesYes
.kh CambodiaKhmer NoNoNo
.ki Kiribati NoYesYes
.km ComorosKomori NoNoYes
.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis NoNoYes
.kp North KoreaKorea Democratic People's RepublicRestricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea. NoNoNoNo
.kr South KoreaKorea Republic YesYesYes
.kw Kuwait YesNo
.ky Cayman Islands (United Kingdom).ci and .cy already allocated NoYesYes
.kz Kazakhstan YesNoYes
.la LaosCurrently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles.[46] YesYes
.lb LebanonRestricted to registration with a company in Lebanon YesNo
.lc Saint LuciaSaint Lucia YesYes
.li LiechtensteinAlso unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense singular ending li . YesYesYes
.lk Sri LankaLanka YesYesYes
.lr Liberia Partial[upper-alpha 13]No
.ls Lesotho NoNo
.lt Lithuania YesYesYes
.lu LuxembourgAlso unofficially used in Lucerne, Switzerland YesYesYes
.lv Latvia YesYesYes
.ly Libya NoYes
.ma MoroccoMaroc Partial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.mc MonacoOnly for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco. YesYes
.md MoldovaRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. YesYes
.me MontenegroMontenegroAlso unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.). YesYes
.mg MadagascarRestricted to registration with a company in Madagascar NoYes
.mh Marshall Islands No
.mk North MacedoniaMakedonijaRestricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia NoYes
.ml MaliAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[47]NoYes
.mm Myanmar NoNo
.mn MongoliaThe second-level domains .gov.mn, .org.mn, and .edu.mn are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. YesYes
.mo MacauMacaoRegistrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. NoYes
.mp Northern Mariana Islands (United States)Marianas Pacific NoYes
.mq Martinique (France) NoNo
.mr MauritaniaAlso unofficially used for Mr.-related domains. YesYes
.ms Montserrat (United Kingdom)Also unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. NoYes
.mt Malta NoNo
.mu Mauritius NoYes
.mv Maldives NoYes
.mw Malawi NoYes
.mx Mexico YesYes
.my MalaysiaRestricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[48]YesYes
.mz Mozambique NoNo
.na Namibia YesYes
.nc New Caledonia (France)Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. YesYes
.ne NigerAlso unofficially used and marketed as a Lithuanian-language domain hack (for example o.ne, kaip.ne, etc.). NoYes
.nf Norfolk Island YesYes
.ng Nigeria NoYes
.ni Nicaragua NoNo
.nl NetherlandsFirst active country-code domain outside the US.[49] NoYesYesYes
.no NorwayBusinesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.

Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example oh.no, what.no, etc.).

YesYesYesYes
.np   NepalAll .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. NoNo
.nr NauruWas previously used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.[50] NoYes
.nu NiueCommonly used by Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[51]YesYesYes
.nz New Zealand Māori[52]YesYes[53]Yes
.om OmanRegistrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. YesNo
.pa PanamaSome use in Pennsylvania NoNo
.pe Peru YesYesYes
.pf French Polynesia (France)Polynésie françaiseWith Clipperton Island NoYes
.pg Papua New Guinea NoNo
.ph Philippines NoYes
.pk PakistanOperated by PKNIC since 1992 NoYes
.pl Poland Yes[54]YesYes
.pm Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France)Saint Pierre and MiquelonRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] YesYes
.pn Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom)As a part of a marketing campaign, Lionsgate used the TLD for some (now defunct) sites related to The Hunger Games franchise, presenting it as the "official" country code of the fictional nation of Panem, notable sites included thecapitol.pn and revolution.pn. NoYes
.pr Puerto Rico (United States) YesYes
.ps Palestine[56]Jerusalem, West Bank and Gaza Strip. NoYes
.pt Portugal PortugueseYesYesYes[57]
.pw PalauPelew YesYesYesYes[58]
.py Paraguay NoNo
.qa Qatar NoNo
.re Réunion (France)Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.ro Romania Yes[59]Yes[60]YesYes[61]
.rs SerbiaRepublika SrbijaSee also .срб (.srb in Cyrillic). Also unofficially used for Rust (programming language)-related domains. YesYesYesYes
.ru RussiaSee also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. NoYesYesYes
.rw Rwanda NoYes
.sa Saudi ArabiaRegistrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[62] Arabic[13]Yes[63]YesYes[64]
.sb Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands, BritishAlso unofficially used for SpongeBob SquarePants-related domains. YesNo
.sc SeychellesAlso unofficially used for Snapchat-related domains. YesYes
.sd Sudan NoYes
.se Sweden Yes[upper-alpha 14]YesYesYes
.sg SingaporeAlso unofficially used in the Canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland YesYes
.sh Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) NIC.SH (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes[66]YesYes
.si Slovenia Yes[upper-alpha 15]YesYes
.sk SlovakiaRestricted to Slovak companies, organisations, and citizens. YesYesYes
.sl Sierra Leone YesYes
.sm San MarinoDomain name must be same as company name or trademark. NoYes
.sn SenegalRegistration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. YesYes
.so SomaliaRelaunched on 1 November 2010. NoNoYes
.sr Suriname NoYes
.ss South SudanAdded to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available. Yes
.st São Tomé and PríncipeAlso unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz). Yes[68]NoYes
.su Soviet UnionStill in use. Also unofficially used by Student Unions. Yes[upper-alpha 16]YesYesYes[70]
.sv El Salvador NoNo
.sx Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands).sm, .ma, and .mt already allocated YesNo
.sy Syria NoYes
.sz EswatiniSwazilandRegistration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. NoNo
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)Also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. NoYes
.td ChadTchadAvailable for registration to entities connected with Chad only. NoYes
.tf French Southern and Antarctic LandsTerres australes et antarctiques françaisesSeldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. The domain also sees frequent use for community-run sites related to the video game Team Fortress 2.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.tg Togo NoYes
.th Thailand YesYesNo
.tj Tajikistan NoYes
.tk TokelauAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[71]NoYes
.tl East TimorTimor-LesteOld code .tp has been deactivated since 2015. YesYes
.tm Turkmenistan Yes[72]YesYes
.tn TunisiaCurrently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Tamil Nadu[73] YesYesYesYes
.to TongaOften used unofficially for Torrent, Turin (Torino in Italian), Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins, and also as a domain hack in Slavic languages (to meaning it). YesNoYes
.tr Turkey.nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[upper-alpha 17]NoYesYes[upper-alpha 18]
.tt Trinidad and Tobago YesYes
.tv TuvaluUsed as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. YesYes
.tw TaiwanRegistration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that "TW" is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."[76] Yes[upper-alpha 19]YesYes
.tz TanzaniaMust have a presence in Tanzania YesNo
.ua UkraineUkrainaUkrainian trademark required YesYes
.ug Uganda YesYes
.uk United KingdomThe ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[78] Nominet UKYesYesYes
.us United States of AmericaRegistrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD. NeustarYesYes
.uy Uruguay2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[79] YesYes
.uz Uzbekistan NoYes
.va  Vatican CityLimited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State). NoNo
.vc Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVincent Partial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.ve VenezuelaRegistration is at the third level. YesNo
.vg British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)Virgin Islands YesYes
.vi United States Virgin Islands (United States)Virgin Islands NoYes
.vn Vietnam Yes[80]YesYes
.vu Vanuatu YesYes
.wf Wallis and FutunaRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.ws SamoaWestern SamoaMarketed for use in general Websites YesYes[81]Yes
.ye Yemen NoNo
.yt MayotteMayotteRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Also unofficially used for YouTube-related domains. Yes[31]YesYes
.za South AfricaZuid-Afrika YesYes
.zm Zambia NoYes[upper-alpha 20]
.zw Zimbabwe NoNo
Table Notes
  1. 17 November 2009, Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law.[10]
  2. Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see[11]
  3. Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered-in.
  4. Since March 2004, see[20]
  5. IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[21]
  6. 93 non-ASCII characters, see[22]
  7. 1 January 2004, support æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é: see[23]
  8. Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) starting from 13 June 2011[25]
  9. Supported characters: Latin, Greek, & Cyrillic; see[27]
  10. September 2005, supported characters: Latin only; see[29]
  11. (6 December 2011)[55]
  12. Support for Greek characters since July 2005; see[36]
  13. Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
  14. October 2003, for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish; see[65]
  15. Since October 2010, see[67]
  16. (28 April 2008) see[69]
  17. 14 November 2006; see[74]
  18. 21 July 2015; see[75]
  19. Traditional Chinese characters: see[77]
  20. Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm .

Internationalized ccTLDs

Internationalized country code top-level domains[82]
DNS name IDN ccTLD Country/Region Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j.الجزائر AlgeriaArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Jazā'ir.dzNo
xn--y9a3aq.հայ ArmeniaArmenianArmenianhay.amYes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a.البحرين BahrainArabicArabical-BahrainNot in use.bhNo
xn--54b7fta0cc.বাংলা BangladeshBengaliBengaliBangla.bdYes
xn--90ais.бел BelarusBelarusianCyrillicbel.byNo
xn--90ae.бг[83] BulgariaBulgarianCyrillicbg.bgNo
xn--fiqs8s.中国 ChinaChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--fiqz9s.中國 ChinaChineseChinese (Traditional)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--wgbh1c.مصر EgyptArabicArabic (Arabic)Miṣr / Maṣr[84].egYes
xn--e1a4c.ею European UnionBulgarianCyrilliceyu.euYes
xn--qxa6a.ευ European UnionGreekGreekeyNot in use.eu
xn--node.გე GeorgiaGeorgianGeorgian (Mkhedruli)GE.geNo
xn--qxam.ελ[83] GreeceGreekGreekelIn use since July 2018.grNo
xn--j6w193g.香港 Hong KongChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Hoeng1 gong2.hkYes
xn--h2brj9c.भारत IndiaHindiDevanagariBhāratBecame available 27 August 2014[85].inYes
xn--mgbbh1a71e.بھارت IndiaUrduArabic (Urdu)BhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--fpcrj9c3d.భారత్ IndiaTeluguTeluguBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--gecrj9c.ભારત IndiaGujaratiGujaratiBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--s9brj9c.ਭਾਰਤ IndiaPunjabiGurmukhīBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h.இந்தியா IndiaTamilTamilIntiyāBecame available 2015.inYes
xn--45brj9c.ভারত IndiaBengaliBengaliBharôtBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--2scrj9c.ಭಾರತ IndiaKannadaKannadaBhārataBecame available 2020.in
xn--rvc1e0am3e.ഭാരതം IndiaMalayalamMalayalamBhāratamBecame available 2020.in
xn--45br5cyl.ভাৰত IndiaAssameseBengaliBharatamNot in use.in
xn--3hcrj9c.ଭାରତ IndiaOriyaOriyaBhāratNot in use.in
xn--mgbbh1a.بارت IndiaKashmiriArabic (Kashmiri)BāratNot in use.in
xn--h2breg3eve.भारतम् IndiaSanskritDevanagariBhāratamNot in use.in
xn--h2brj9c8c.भारोत IndiaSantaliDevanagariBharotNot in use.in
xn--mgbgu82a.ڀارت IndiaSindhiArabic (Sindhi)BhāratNot in use.in
xn--mgba3a4f16a.ایران IranPersianArabic (Persian)Īrān.irNo
xn--mgbtx2b.عراق IraqArabicArabic (Arabic)ʿIrāqNot in use.iqNo
xn--4dbrk0ce.ישראל IsraelHebrewHebrewIsraelNot in use.ilNo
xn--mgbayh7gpa.الاردن JordanArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Urdun.joNo
xn--80ao21a.қаз KazakhstanKazakhCyrillic (Kazakh)qaz.kzNo
xn--q7ce6a.ລາວ LaosLaoLaoLaoBecame available 2020.la
xn--mix082f.澳门 MacaoChineseChinese (Simplified)Ou3 mun4 / ÀoménNot in use.moNo
xn--mix891f.澳門 MacaoChineseChinese (Traditional)Ou3 mun4 / ÀoménBecame available 2020.moNo
xn--mgbx4cd0ab.مليسيا MalaysiaMalayArabic (Jawi)Malaysīyā.myYes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd.موريتانيا MauritaniaArabicArabic (Arabic)Mūrītāniyā.mrNo
xn--l1acc.мон MongoliaMongolianCyrillic (Mongolian)mon.mnYes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg.المغرب MoroccoArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Maġrib.maNo
xn--d1alf.мкд North MacedoniaMacedonianCyrillic (Macedonian)mkd.mkNo
xn--mgb9awbf.عمان OmanArabicArabic (Arabic)ʿUmān.omNo
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j.پاکستان PakistanUrduArabic (Urdu)Pākistān.pkYes
xn--ygbi2ammx.فلسطين Palestinian AuthorityArabicArabic (Arabic)Filasṭīn.psNo
xn--wgbl6a.قطر QatarArabicArabic (Arabic)Qaṭar.qaNo
xn--p1ai.рф RussiaRussianCyrillic (Russian)rf.ruYes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar.السعودية Saudi ArabiaArabicArabic (Arabic)as-Suʿūdīya.saYes[63]
xn--90a3ac.срб SerbiaSerbianCyrillic (Serbian)srb.rsNo
xn--yfro4i67o.新加坡 SingaporeChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Xīnjiāpō.sgYes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd.சிங்கப்பூர் SingaporeTamilTamilCinkappūr.sgYes
xn--3e0b707e.한국 South KoreaKoreanHangulHan-guk.krYes
xn--fzc2c9e2c.ලංකා Sri LankaSinhalaSinhalaLanka.lkPartial[upper-alpha 1]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a.இலங்கை Sri LankaTamilTamilIlaṅkai.lkPartial[upper-alpha 1]
xn--mgbpl2fh.سودان SudanArabicArabic (Arabic)Sūdān.sdNo
xn--ogbpf8fl.سورية SyriaArabicArabic (Arabic)Sūriyya.syYes
xn--kprw13d.台湾 TaiwanChineseChinese (Simplified)Táiwān.twYes
xn--kpry57d.台灣 TaiwanChineseChinese (Traditional)Táiwān.twYes
xn--o3cw4h.ไทย ThailandThaiThaiThai.thYes
xn--pgbs0dh.تونس TunisiaArabicArabic (Arabic)Tūnis.tnYes
xn--j1amh.укр UkraineUkrainianCyrillic (Ukrainian)ukr.uaNo
xn--mgbaam7a8h.امارات United Arab EmiratesArabicArabic (Arabic)Imārāt.aeNo
xn--mgb2ddes.اليمن YemenArabicArabic (Arabic)al-YamanNot delegated.yeNo
Table notes
  1. Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.

Relation to ISO 3166-1


The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still await local assignment by France's government.

The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[87] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

  • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.[88]
  • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union was still extant; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
  • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
  • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area.

Historical ccTLDs

ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[89][90] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 23 July 2003, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

Internationalized ccTLDs


An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its native language script or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Indic script (.भारत), Japanese script (.日本), etc. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[91] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[92]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Generic ccTLDs


Generic Country Code Top-Level Domain or gccTLD refers to those TLDs which are technically "non-restricted ccTLDs" but used like traditional generic TLDs (gTLDs) rather than "country" targeted ones.[93][94][95] Most of the gccTLDs are primarily used as domain hacks:

gccTLD Country/Region Domain hacks
.adAndorraadvertisement
.asAmerican Samoa
.bzBelize
.ccCocos (Keeling) Islands
.cdCongoCompact disc
.coColombiacompany
.djDjiboutidisc jockey
.fmFederated States of MicronesiaFM broadcasting and podcasts
.ggBailiwick of GuernseyGood Game
.ioBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryInput/output
.laLaos
.meMontenegrome
.msMontserrat
.nuNiuenow
.scSeychelles
.tfFrench Southern and Antarctic LandsTeam Fortress
.tvTuvalutelevision
.wsWestern Samoaworld site

Unconventional usage


Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start.at and go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu.be of Belgium (be), del.icio.us of the United States (us), and cr.yp.to of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[96]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[97]

Commercial use

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also


Notes


    References


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