Country code top-level domain
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.
In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today, ccTLDs make up 40% of the total domain name industry. Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered first extensions that year were .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), and .il (Israel). There are 308 delegated ccTLDs. The .cn, .tk, .de and .uk ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains. The top ten ccTLDs account for 64.3% of registered ccTLD domains and there were 156.5 million ccTLD domains registered at the end of March 2021.
Delegation and management
IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs. Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.
The first registered ccTLD was .no, which was registered in 1983. Later ccTLDs registered were .us, .uk, and .il in 1985, then followed by .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .is, .kr, .nl, and .se were also registered in 1986.
As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. This number is 316, As of June 2020[update], with the addition of internationalized domains.
Latin Character ccTLDs
Table columns – legend Name DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for the European Union, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland instead of ".gb". ISO codes
umare not used for country code top-level domains.
Entity Country, dependency, or region Explanation Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German language name for Germany). Notes General remarks Registry Domain name registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC) IDN Support for internationalized domain names (IDN) DNSSEC Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions SLD Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply) IPv6 Registry fully supports IPv6 access
|.ac||Ascension Island (United Kingdom)||Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However,
||Ascension Island Network Information Centre (run by Internet Computer Bureau)||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ad||Andorra||Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required||Nic.ad||No||Yes||Yes|
|.ae||United Arab Emirates||.aeDA||No||No||Yes|
|.ag||Antigua and Barbuda||Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft).||No||Yes||Yes|
|.ai||Anguilla (United Kingdom)||Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence).||No||No||Yes|
|.al||Albania||Citizenship no longer required.||No||No||Yes|
|.am||Armenia||Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business.||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.aq||Antarctica||Antarctique||Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica.||?||No||Yes||?|
|.as||American Samoa (United States)||In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.au||Australia||Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years. Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands.||No||Yes||No||Yes|
|.aw||Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands)||Aruba, West Indies||Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens||No||Yes||Yes|
|.az||Azerbaijan||Only for Residents. Has no WHOIS-Server.||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ba||Bosnia and Herzegovina||No||No||Yes|
|.bd||Bangladesh||For individuals, registrant must have a valid NID. For companies, registrant must have company or trademark registered in Bangladesh.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.be||Belgium||Also unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland||Latin||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.bg||Bulgaria||See also .бг (
|.bm||Bermuda (United Kingdom)||Local corporate registration required||No||Yes||Yes|
|.bq||Caribbean Netherlands ( Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius)||Not used.|
|.br||Brazil||Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.:
|.bt||Bhutan||Must have local presence in Bhutan, and valid trade license||No||Yes||No|
|.bw||Botswana||May also be used for the Province of Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgium||No||Yes||Yes|
|.by||Belarus||Byelorussia||Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany||No||Yes||Yes|
|.bz||Belize||Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st)||No||Yes||Yes|
|.ca||Canada||Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Also unofficially used by some websites in the U.S. state of California.||French||Yes||Yes|
|.cc||Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)||Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.cd||Democratic Republic of the Congo||Congo, Democratic Republic||Also unofficially used for Compact disc-related domains.||No||No||Yes|
|.cf||Central African Republic||Also used as a free domain service to the public.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.cg||Republic of the Congo||No||No||Yes|
|.ci||Ivory Coast||Côte d'Ivoire||No||No||Yes|
|.cm||Cameroon||A local entity / company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name.||No||No||Yes|
|.cn||People's Republic of China||A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.
Also unofficially used for Cartoon Network-related domains.
|.co||Colombia||Marketed as a global domain. Anyone can register.||No||Yes||Yes|
|.cv||Cape Verde||Also unofficially used for curriculum vitae-related domains.||No||No||Yes|
|.cw||Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands)||Curaçao, West Indies||No||Unknown|
|.cx||Christmas Island||Christmas Xmas||Made infamous from Goatse.cx||No||Yes||Yes|
|.de||Germany||Deutschland||German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed.||DENIC||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.dj||Djibouti||Also unofficially used by disc jockeys.||No||No||Yes|
|.dz||Algeria||El Djazair / Dzayer||No||Yes||Yes|
|.ec||Ecuador||In Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".||No||No||Yes|
|.eh||Western Sahara||Español Sahara||Unassigned||No||No||No|
|.eu||European Union||Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.fi||Finland||Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.fk||Falkland Islands (United Kingdom)||No||No||No|
|.fm||Federated States of Micronesia||Also unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business.||Emoji||Yes||Yes|
|.fo||Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark)||Føroyar||No||Yes||Yes|
|.fr||France||Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ga||Gabon||Also used as a free domain service to the public.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.ge||Georgia||Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant).||No||No||Yes|
|.gf||French Guiana (France)||Guyane Française||No||No|
|.gg||Guernsey (United Kingdom)||Also unofficially used by video game related websites (see GG (gaming))||Yes||No||Yes|
|.gi||Gibraltar (United Kingdom)||No||Yes||Yes|
|.gl||Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark)||Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now
|.gm||The Gambia||Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked.||No||No||Yes|
|.gn||Guinea||A local contact is required||No||Yes||No|
|.gp||Guadeloupe (France)||Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin||No||No||Yes|
|.gq||Equatorial Guinea||Guinée équatoriale||Also used as a free domain service to the public.||Yes||No|
|.gs||South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom)||No||Yes||Yes|
|.gu||Guam (United States)||Registry has been closed since 2017.||No||No||No|
|.hm||Heard Island and McDonald Islands||Unused for its intended purposes (islands are uninhabited and government sites instead use
|.hu||Hungary||Citizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.id||Indonesia||Restricted to Indonesian companies (
||PANDI (run by Kominfo)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ie||Ireland||In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.im||Isle of Man (United Kingdom)||No||No||Yes|
|.in||India||Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except for
|.io||British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom)||Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input / output that is useful for domain hacks.||NIC.IO (run by Internet Computer Bureau)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.is||Iceland||Ísland||Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example it.is, that.is, etc.).||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.it||Italy||Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.je||Jersey (United Kingdom)||Yes||No||Yes|
|.jp||Japan||Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.kn||Saint Kitts and Nevis||No||No||Yes|
|.kp||North Korea||Korea Democratic People's Republic||Restricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea.||No||No||No||No|
|.kr||South Korea||Korea Republic||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ky||Cayman Islands (United Kingdom)||No||Yes||Yes|
|.la||Laos||Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles.||Yes||Yes|
|.lb||Lebanon||Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon||Yes||No|
|.lc||Saint Lucia||Saint Lucia||Yes||Yes|
|.li||Liechtenstein||Also unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense singular ending li .||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.lu||Luxembourg||Also unofficially used in Lucerne, Switzerland||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.mc||Monaco||Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco.||Yes||Yes|
|.md||Moldova||Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova.||Yes||Yes|
|.me||Montenegro||Montenegro||Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.).||Yes||Yes|
|.mg||Madagascar||Restricted to registration with a company in Madagascar||No||Yes|
|.mk||North Macedonia||Makedonija||Restricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia||No||Yes|
|.ml||Mali||Also used as a free domain service to the public.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.mn||Mongolia||The second-level domains
|.mo||Macau||Macao||Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.||No||Yes|
|.mp||Northern Mariana Islands (United States)||Marianas Pacific||No||Yes|
|.mr||Mauritania||Also unofficially used for Mr.-related domains.||Yes||Yes|
|.ms||Montserrat (United Kingdom)||Also unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains.||No||Yes|
|.my||Malaysia||Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.nc||New Caledonia (France)||Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months.||Yes||Yes|
|.ne||Niger||Also unofficially used and marketed as a Lithuanian-language domain hack (for example o.ne, kaip.ne, etc.).||No||Yes|
|.nl||Netherlands||First active country-code domain outside the US.||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.no||Norway||Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.
Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example oh.no, what.no, etc.).
|.nr||Nauru||Was previously used as a free domain service to the public as
|.nu||Niue||Commonly used by Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now".||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.om||Oman||Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact.||Yes||No|
|.pa||Panama||Some use in Pennsylvania||No||No|
|.pf||French Polynesia (France)||Polynésie française||With Clipperton Island||No||Yes|
|.pg||Papua New Guinea||No||No|
|.pk||Pakistan||Operated by PKNIC since 1992||No||Yes|
|.pm||Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France)||Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.||Yes||Yes|
|.pn||Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom)||As a part of a marketing campaign, Lionsgate used the TLD for some (now defunct) sites related to The Hunger Games franchise, presenting it as the "official" country code of the fictional nation of Panem, notable sites included thecapitol.pn and revolution.pn.||No||Yes|
|.pr||Puerto Rico (United States)||Yes||Yes|
|.ps||Palestine||Jerusalem, West Bank and Gaza Strip.||No||Yes|
|.re||Réunion (France)||Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.rs||Serbia||Republika Srbija||See also .срб (.srb in Cyrillic). Also unofficially used for Rust (programming language)-related domains.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ru||Russia||See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN.||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.sa||Saudi Arabia||Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.||Arabic||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.sb||Solomon Islands||Solomon Islands, British||Also unofficially used for SpongeBob SquarePants-related domains.||Yes||No|
|.sc||Seychelles||Also unofficially used for Snapchat-related domains.||Yes||Yes|
|.sg||Singapore||Also unofficially used in the Canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland||Yes||Yes|
|.sh||Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)||NIC.SH (run by Internet Computer Bureau)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.sk||Slovakia||Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations, and citizens.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.sm||San Marino||Domain name must be same as company name or trademark.||No||Yes|
|.sn||Senegal||Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register.||Yes||Yes|
|.so||Somalia||Relaunched on 1 November 2010.||No||No||Yes|
|.ss||South Sudan||Added to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available.||Yes|
|.st||São Tomé and Príncipe||Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz).||Yes||No||Yes|
|.su||Soviet Union||Still in use. Also unofficially used by Student Unions.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.sx||Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands)||.sm, .ma, and .mt already allocated||Yes||No|
|.sz||Eswatini||Swaziland||Registration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses.||No||No|
|.tc||Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)||Also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC.||No||Yes|
|.td||Chad||Tchad||Available for registration to entities connected with Chad only.||No||Yes|
|.tf||French Southern and Antarctic Lands||Terres australes et antarctiques françaises||Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. The domain also sees frequent use for community-run sites related to the video game Team Fortress 2.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.tk||Tokelau||Also used as a free domain service to the public.||Yes||No||Yes|
|.tl||East Timor||Timor-Leste||Old code .tp has been deactivated since 2015.||Yes||Yes|
|.tn||Tunisia||Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Tamil Nadu||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.to||Tonga||Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin (Torino in Italian), Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins, and also as a domain hack in Slavic languages (to meaning it).||Yes||No||Yes|
|.tr||Turkey||.nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus||Yes||No||Yes||Yes|
|.tt||Trinidad and Tobago||Yes||Yes|
|.tv||Tuvalu||Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company.||Yes||Yes|
|.tw||Taiwan||Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that "TW" is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.tz||Tanzania||Must have a presence in Tanzania||Yes||No|
|.ua||Ukraine||Ukraina||Ukrainian trademark required||Yes||Yes|
|.uk||United Kingdom||The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.||Nominet UK||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.us||United States of America||Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD.||Neustar||Yes||Yes|
|.uy||Uruguay||2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.||Yes||Yes|
|.va||Vatican City||Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State).||No||No|
|.vc||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Vincent||Partial||Yes|
|.ve||Venezuela||Registration is at the third level.||Yes||No|
|.vg||British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)||Virgin Islands||Yes||Yes|
|.vi||United States Virgin Islands (United States)||Virgin Islands||No||Yes|
|.wf||Wallis and Futuna||Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.ws||Samoa||Western Samoa||Marketed for use in general Websites||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|.yt||Mayotte||Mayotte||Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Also unofficially used for YouTube-related domains.||Yes||Yes||Yes|
- Table Notes
- 17 November 2009, Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law.
- Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see
- Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered-in.
- Since March 2004, see
- IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest
- 93 non-ASCII characters, see
- 1 January 2004, support æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é: see
- Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) starting from 13 June 2011
- Supported characters: Latin, Greek, & Cyrillic; see
- September 2005, supported characters: Latin only; see
- (6 December 2011)
- Support for Greek characters since July 2005; see
- Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
- October 2003, for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish; see
- Since October 2010, see
- (28 April 2008[update]) see
- 14 November 2006; see
- 21 July 2015; see
- Traditional Chinese characters: see
- Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm .
- Table notes
- Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
Relation to ISO 3166-1
The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.
Unused ISO 3166-1 codes
Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS.
However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (
bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (
sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—
bl (Saint Barthélemy) and
mf (Saint Martin)—still[update] await local assignment by France's government.
eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in
gb (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use
uk (see below).
The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.
ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1
Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.
uk(United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected
ukas a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root.
gbwas assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of
ukis now entrenched.
suThis obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union was still extant; moreover, new
suregistrations are accepted.
ac(Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs,
im(Isle of Man) and
je(Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
eu(European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved
euas a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area.
ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1:
cs (for Czechoslovakia),
zr (for Zaire) and
tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the
zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD
su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.
The temporary reassignment of country code
cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into
me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.
The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 23 July 2003, but the
yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian
rs and Montenegrin
me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.
An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its native language script or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Indic script (.भारत), Japanese script (.日本), etc. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.
ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009, and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.
ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.
Generic Country Code Top-Level Domain or gccTLD refers to those TLDs which are technically "non-restricted ccTLDs" but used like traditional generic TLDs (gTLDs) rather than "country" targeted ones. Most of the gccTLDs are primarily used as domain hacks:
|.cc||Cocos (Keeling) Islands|
|.fm||Federated States of Micronesia||FM broadcasting and podcasts|
|.gg||Bailiwick of Guernsey||Good Game|
|.io||British Indian Ocean Territory||Input/output|
|.tf||French Southern and Antarctic Lands||Team Fortress|
|.ws||Western Samoa||world site|
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2011)
Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as
go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as
blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (
youtu.be of Belgium (
del.icio.us of the United States (
cr.yp.to of Tonga (
.co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.
Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.
Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.
- List of ccTLDs
- Country code top-level domains with commercial licenses
- Country code second-level domain
- The Domain Name Industry Report (PDF). verisign.com (Report).
- "ccTLD". ICANN (iana.org). 2012-02-25.
- "Verisign Domain Name Industry Brief Q1 2021" (PDF). verisign.com.
- "list of ccTLDs". IANA (iana.org).
- "Root Zone database". IANA (iana.org). Retrieved 2020-02-01.
- 
- "IANA — Root Zone Database". iana.org. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "norma". infoleg.gov.ar.
- "IDN Zeichentabelle" (PDF) (in German).
- "Rules for .au Domains".
- 
- "DNS Belgium and IPv6" (PDF). economie.fgov.be. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- "Domínios .br". Registro.br.
- "Domínios em Português e restrição de dados no WHOIS". Registro.br. 4 May 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "Domain Registration". Nic.Bt. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- "About internationalized domain names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EmojiBoutique cf". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "details". nic.ch.
- "CZ.NIC - IDN - Internationalized domain names". Nic.cz. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "details". denic.de. Archived from the original on 2010-10-31.
- "details". æøå.dk-hostmaster.dk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007.
- BASE. "BASE (ベイス) | ネットショップを無料で簡単に作成". BASE (ベイス) | ネットショップを無料で簡単に作成 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN)". Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- "Other applicable Regulations". dominios.es. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "details". eurid.eu. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012.
- ".eu and IPv6". EURid.eu. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- "details". ficora.fi.
- ".fm Emoji Domain Search". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EmojiBoutique ga". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (PDF). nic.net.ge (Report). Article 1.9. Recent Georgian version has some updates not affecting this article.
- "EmojiBoutique gg". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "EmojiBoutique gq". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "details". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
- "Delegation Rules". The Council of Hungarian Internet Providers. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Information Technology Law: Professional practice guide (Report). Dublin, IE: Law Society of Ireland. 2004. p. 23.
- "Now, get Internet domain names in regional languages". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "TLD DNSSEC Report". stats.research.icann.org. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- "Emoji Boutique je". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- Morishita, Yasuhiro Orange (2 September 2003). ".JP technical update" (PDF). jprs.jp. RIPE 46 General Meeting. Japan Registry Service, Co., Ltd. (JPRS). Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- ".LA - The Official .LA Registry". La. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EmojiBoutique ml". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "our milestones". sidn.nl.
- "Free Domain Name Pro". freedomain.pro. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "nu teckentabell" (PDF). iis.se.
- "F.A.Q. for Domain Names with macrons (IDNs)". .nz Domain Name Commission. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "second level domains". dnc.org.nz. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "IDN intro www.dns.pl". Archived from the original on 10 August 2003. Retrieved 11 September 2003.
"Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs".
Previously restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
- "Delegation Record for .PS". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Notícias". Dns.pt. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Registrars". Registry.PW. Poets & Writers. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". nic.sa.
- "DNSSEC is Officially Enabled in Saudi Arabia's TLD". Nic.sa. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Saudi NIC" (PDF). nic.sa. 2012. IPv6.
- "details" (PDF). iis.se.
- "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EmojiBoutique st". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "details". Archived from the original on 19 May 2014.
- "ccTLD.su". Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "EmojiBoutique tk". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- ".TN for Tamil Nadu". tamil.tn. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- "details". nic.tr.
- "details". iana.org.
- "IANA — Report on the Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 ("Taiwan") domains representing Taiwan in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "details". twnic.net.tw.
- Mueller, Milton (2002). Ruling the Root: Internet governance and the taming of cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780262632980 – via Google Books.
- "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY" (PDF). Nic.org.uy. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Trung tâm internet Viêt Nam – Tên mien tieng viet". Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "You are being redirected". Domain.me. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "String evaluation completion". Icann.org. Resources. ICANN. 2014-02-19. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "ccTLD applicants who have requested the second and final review". EPSRP reports. ICANN. 2014-10-14. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية". Dotmasr.eg. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Launch of .भारत domain name in Devanagari script by Hon'ble MCIT and Law & Justice Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad". Registry.in. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Postel, Jon (March 1994). "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". RFC 1591. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- "DNS loookup for dra.hmg.gb". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
- Mueller, Milton (2002). Ruling the Root: Internet governance and the taming of cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780262632980.
- Daigle, Leslie (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- Daigle, Leslie (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- "ICANN Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "What is gccTLD?". dynadot.com.
- "What you should know about gccTDLs and organic search". name.com. Nov 2016.
- "gccTLD generic country-code domains". dynadot.com.
- "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". cointernet.co. Colombia: .CO Internet S.A.S. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. Cable News Network. 2007-06-01. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-11-05.