Crawley (pronunciation ) is a large town and borough in West Sussex, England. It is 28 miles (45 km) south of London, 18 miles (29 km) north of Brighton and Hove, and 32 miles (51 km) north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of 17.36 square miles (44.96 km2) and had a population of 106,597 at the time of the 2011 Census.

Borough of Crawley
Goffs Park House, Crawley
"I Grow and I Rejoice"
Location of Crawley within West Sussex
Coordinates: 51°6′33″N 0°11′14″W
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionSouth East England
Ceremonial countyWest Sussex
Historic countySussex
(Town centre and outlying areas)
(Gatwick Airport)
Admin HQCrawley, England
Founded5th century
Borough status1974
  BodyCrawley Borough Council
  LeadershipLeader and cabinet
  Council LeaderCllr Peter Lamb (L)
  MayorCllr Shahzad Malik (L)
  MPsHenry Smith (C)
  Borough17.36 sq mi (44.96 km2)
 (mid-2019 est.)
  Borough112,409 (ranked 213th)
  Density5,750/sq mi (2,221/km2)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
RH6 and RH10–11
Area code(s)01293
ISO 3166-2GB-WSX (West Sussex)
ONS code45UE (ONS)
E07000226 (GSS)
OS grid referenceTQ268360

The area has been inhabited since the Stone Age,[1] and was a centre of ironworking in Roman times. Crawley developed slowly as a market town from the 13th century, serving the surrounding villages in the Weald. Its location on the main road from London to Brighton brought passing trade, which encouraged the development of coaching inns. A rail link to London opened in 1841.

Gatwick Airport, nowadays one of Britain's busiest international airports, opened on the edge of the town in the 1940s, encouraging commercial and industrial growth. After the Second World War, the British Government planned to move large numbers of people and jobs out of London and into new towns around South East England. The New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley as the site of one of these.[2] A master plan was developed for the establishment of new residential, commercial, industrial and civic areas, and rapid development greatly increased the size and population of the town over a few decades.

The town contains 14 residential neighbourhoods radiating out from the core of the old market town, and separated by main roads and railway lines. The nearby communities of Ifield, Pound Hill and Three Bridges were absorbed into the new town at various stages in its development. In 2009, expansion was being planned in the west and north-west of the town, in cooperation with Horsham District Council, which has now become a new neighbourhood named Kilnwood Vale, but it is not in Crawley.[3] Economically, the town has developed into the main centre of industry and employment between London and the south coast. Its large industrial area supports manufacturing and service companies, many of them connected with the airport. The commercial and retail sectors continue to expand.[2]