Creek War

The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Indigenous American Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in modern-day Alabama and along the Gulf Coast. The major conflicts of the war took place between state militia units and the "Red Stick" Creeks. The United States government formed an alliance with the Choctaw Nation and Cherokee Nation (the traditional enemies of the Creeks), along with the remaining Creeks to put the rebellion down.

Creek War
Part of War of 1812 and American Indian Wars

William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson
Date22 July 1813 – 9 August 1814
(1 year, 2 weeks and 4 days)[1]
Result U.S. and allied victory
 United States
Lower Creeks

Red Stick Creeks

(supported by):
 United Kingdom
Tecumseh's Confederacy
Commanders and leaders
Andrew Jackson
John Coffee
William McIntosh
William Weatherford
Peter McQueen
7,000 4,000
Casualties and losses
~584 killed,
unknown wounded
~1,597 killed,
unknown wounded

According to historian John K. Mahon, the Creek War "was as much a civil war among Creeks as between red and white, and it pointed up the separation of Creeks and Seminoles".[2] The war was also part of the centuries-long American Indian Wars. It is usually considered part of the War of 1812 because it was influenced by Tecumseh's War in the Old Northwest, was concurrent with the American-British portion of the war and involved many of the same participants, and because the Red Sticks had sought British support and aided Admiral Cochrane's advance towards New Orleans.

The Creek War began as a conflict within the Creek Confederation, but local militia units quickly became involved. British traders in Florida as well as the Spanish government provided the Red Sticks with arms and supplies because of their shared interest in preventing the expansion of the United States into their areas. The war effectively ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson (August 1814), when General Andrew Jackson forced the Creek confederacy to surrender more than 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama.[3]

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