The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı, قرم خانلغى or Qırım Yurtu, قرم يورتى), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (Uluğ Orda ve Deşt-i Qıpçaq, اولوغ اوردا و دشت قپچاق), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, it was regarded as the direct heir to the Golden Horde and to Desht-i-Kipchak.
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Coat of arms
Insignia of the Giray dynasty
|Hacı I Giray (First)|
|Şahin Giray (last)|
• Annexed by Russia
|Today part of|
In 1783, violating the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (which had guaranteed non-interference of both Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the affairs of the Crimean Khanate), the Russian Empire annexed the khanate. Among the European powers, only France came out with an open protest against this act, due to the longstanding Franco-Ottoman alliance.