Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı, قرم خانلغى or Qırım Yurtu, قرم يورتى), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak[2] (Uluğ Orda ve Deşt-i Qıpçaq, اولوغ اوردا و دشت قپچاق), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, it was regarded as the direct heir to the Golden Horde and to Desht-i-Kipchak.[3][4]

Crimean Khanate
Qırım Hanlığı  (Crimean Tatar)
قرم خانلغى  (Crimean Tatar)
1441–1783
Coat of arms
Insignia of the Giray dynasty
The khanate in 1550
StatusKhanate[lower-alpha 1]
Capital
Common languages
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentElective monarchy
Khan 
 1441–1466
Hacı I Giray (First)
 1777–1783
Şahin Giray (last)
History 
 Established
1441
 Annexed by Russia
1783
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Golden Horde
Principality of Theodoro
Russian Empire
Today part of

In 1783, violating the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (which had guaranteed non-interference of both Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the affairs of the Crimean Khanate), the Russian Empire annexed the khanate. Among the European powers, only France came out with an open protest against this act, due to the longstanding Franco-Ottoman alliance.[5]