Culinary tourism or food tourism or gastronomy tourism is the exploration of food as the purpose of tourism. It is now considered a vital component of the tourism experience. Dining out is common among tourists and "food is believed to rank alongside climate, accommodation, and scenery" in importance to tourists.
Culinary or food tourism is the pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences, both near and far. Culinary tourism differs from agritourism in that culinary tourism is considered a subset of cultural tourism (cuisine is a manifestation of culture) whereas agritourism is considered a subset of rural tourism, but culinary tourism and agritourism are inextricably linked, as the seeds of cuisine can be found in agriculture. Culinary/food tourism is not limited to gourmet food. Food tourism can be considered a subcategory of experiential travel.
While many cities, regions, or countries are known for their food, culinary tourism is not limited by food culture. Every tourist eats about three times a day, making food one of the fundamental economic drivers of tourism. Countries like Ireland, Peru, and Canada are making a significant investment in culinary tourism development and are seeing results with visitor spending and overnight stays rising as a result of food tourism promotion and product development.
The World Food Travel Association offers the following clarification and definition:
We say "food tourism", but drinking beverages is an implied and associated activity. It is also cumbersome to say "food and drink tourism". We need to clarify "far and near". In addition to traveling across the country or the world to eat or drink, we can also be food travelers in our regions, cities, and neighborhoods. If you rarely leave your neighborhood and travel across town to a new neighborhood to go to a special grocery store or to eat out, you're a "food traveler" in your backyard! The act of traveling is implied because most people travel at least across their town, if not the region, the country, and even the planet. The distance covered is not as important as the fact that we are always on the move. We are all "travelers" of a sort and we are all "eaters". Therefore, we can also all be regarded as "food travelers". Previously the World Food Travel Association had used the phrase "culinary tourism" to describe our industry. We stopped using that phrase in 2012 because our research indicated that it gave a misleading impression. While "culinary" technically can be used for anything relating to food and drink and initially seems to make good sense, the perception among the majority of English-speakers we interviewed is that the word "culinary" is elitist. Nothing could be further from the truth about what our industry is all about. "Food Tourism" includes [sic] the food carts and street vendors as much as the locals-only (gastro)pubs, dramatic wineries, or one-of-a-kind restaurants. There is something for everyone in the food tourism industry.
Food tourism includes activities such as:
- Taking cooking classes
- Going on food tours
- Attending food and drink festivals
- Specialty dining experiences
- Shopping at specialty stores
- Visiting farms, markets, and producers
Culinary tourism became prominent in 2001. The World Food Travel Association estimates that food and beverage expenses account for 15% to 35% of all tourism spending, depending on the affordability of the destination. The WFTA lists possible food tourism benefits as including more visitors, more sales, more media attention, increased tax revenue, and greater community pride.
A growing area of culinary tourism is cooking classes. The formats vary from a short lesson lasting a few hours to full-day and multi-day courses. The focus for foreign tourists will usually be on the cuisine of the country they are visiting, whereas local tourists may be keen to experience cuisines new to them. Many cooking classes also include market tours to enhance the cultural experience. Some cooking classes are held in local people's homes, allowing foreign tourists to catch a glimpse of what daily life and cuisine look like for those in the country they're visiting. Both the local hosts and foreign guests benefit from the cross-cultural experience.
The food tour formula varies from tour to tour and from operator to operator (of which there are many). Most, however, feature the following elements:
- Although in the beginning they operated in major cities that had substantial tourist numbers, such as London, Paris, Rome, Florence, Toronto, Istanbul, New York City, Lisbon, Berlin, Madrid, Belfast, San Francisco, Copenhagen, Tokyo, Shanghai, Beijing, Athens, Kuala Lumpur, Marrakech and Barcelona., nowadays they can be found not just in cities but in rural locations and pretty much everywhere.
- Operators must find a city with a vibrant and interesting food culture. Street food may feature.
- Tours are generally on foot. The distances traveled are never large and may focus on a few adjoining streets. Some cycle tour companies offer food tours by bike.
- Tours typically last at least three hours, although many last longer. Tours generally start and end at public transport hubs such as metro stations.
- Group sizes range from private small groups to around 20 people or more.
- Tours rarely charge for small children who share food with parents/carers (caregivers). Tours may not be necessarily fully compliant with wheelchair use – this will depend on the exact tour and the attitude of each location to disability.
- Tours take visitors to places they might otherwise not have seen, so they can shop and eat like locals rather than rely on tourist traps. Phrases such as “eat the city like a real Parisian/Berliner/Londoner/New Yorker” are often employed in food tour publicity.
- Although tours are often guided by local people, companies that offer longer tours might employ tour guides that accompany tourists from city to city, some of which they may not be local to. Many tour guides add their local knowledge as a bonus, perhaps recommending restaurants in other parts of the city.
- Tours are primarily about food. The format varies from company to company but will generally include visits to markets, bars, and cafés where those on the tour are invited to sample the wares. There is usually a shop visit to buy the sort of food that is difficult to source elsewhere. Tours may end up with a sit-down meal at a restaurant where there is usually the choice of beer, wine, or soft drinks.
- Guides talk about food, often pointing those on the tour to shops they use. They may discuss how the sort of food they and their families eat differs from the food generally offered to tourists. They are unlikely to be kindly disposed to international fast food outlets.
- Guides generally add material about the history of the area the tour is in.
- Tours assume that participants eat almost anything and are not designed for special diets.
- Many tour companies aim to create a sustainable tourism model over which they provide to their clients an experience that makes a positive impact on the local environment, society and economy by working only with local producers and/or family own establishments, and celebrating local traditions, all on foot, which means having a zero carbon footprint.
The World Food Travel Association introduced World Food Travel Day on April 18, 2018, as a way to put the spotlight on how and why we travel to experience the world's culinary cultures. It is designed to bring awareness to both consumers and trade, and support the Association's mission - to preserve and promote culinary cultures through hospitality and tourism. The day is celebrated all around the world every year on April 18.
- Long, Lucy (2004). Culinary Tourism. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 20. ISBN 9780813122922.
- McKercher, Bob; Okumus, Fevzi; Okumus, Bendegul (2008). "Food Tourism as a Viable Market Segment: It's All How You Cook the Numbers!". Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 25 (2): 137–148. doi:10.1080/10548400802402404. hdl:10397/12108. S2CID 153688186.
- "World Food Travel Association". World Food Travel Association. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
- Wolf, Erik (2006). Culinary Tourism: The Hidden Harvest. Kendall/Hunt Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7575-2677-0.
- Wolf, Erik (2001). "Culinary Tourism: The Hidden Harvest" white paper. World Food Travel Association. (currently out of print).
- Wolf, Erik (2014). Have Fork Will Travel. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1490533995.
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- "What is Culinary Tourism?". Retrieved 2018-08-15.
- "What is Culinary Tourism?". Retrieved 2018-08-15.
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- "Discover the Paris food scene like a true Parisian". deliciousmagazine.co.uk. 2015-09-10.
- "In Paris, 8 New Tours, From Art to Shopping". The New York Times. October 16, 2016.
- Nadeau, Barbie (March 26, 2014). "The Problem with Food Porn Tourism". Daily Beast.
- Abel, Ann (March 13, 2017). "Eat the World: 9 Best Food Tours". Forbes. See also Culinary Adventure Co.
- Cordina, Sharon. "Culinary Backstreets". Culinary Backstreets.
- "Six Ways to Enjoy Kuala Lumpur". South China Morning Post. September 2, 2015.
- "Food Tour in Marrakech". TRAVEL COLLECTING. 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
- Frayer, Lauren (August 18, 2015). "Food Tours Help Keep Barcelona's Mom-And-Pop Tapas Bars Alive". NPR.
- National Food Tour Day
- "World Food Travel Day". World Food Travel Association.