Cyrenaica (/srəˈn.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Arabic: برقة, romanized: Barqah; Koinē Greek: Κυρηναϊκή [ἐπαρχία], romanized: Kurēnaïkḗ [eparkhíā], after the city of Cyrene) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca.

Cyrenaica as an administrative unit. It included all of eastern Libya from 1927 to 1963: Italian Cyrenaica from 1927 to 1937 and the Cyrenaica province until 1963.
Coordinates: 31°00′N 22°30′E
Country Libya
  TypeKingdom (632-440 BC; 276-249 BC; 163-96 BC; 34-30 BC)
Republic (440-322 BC; 249-246 BC)
Nome (322-276 BC; 246-96 BC)
Roman province (74 BC-643 AD)
Vilayet (1879-1888 AD)
Mutasarrıf (1888-1911 AD)
Italian colony (1911-1934 AD)
Military administration (1943-1949 AD)
Emirate (643-? AD; 1949-1951 AD)
Province (1951-1963 AD)
  Total855,370 km2 (330,260 sq mi)
  Density1.9/km2 (4.9/sq mi)

Cyrenaica was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, still in use, Cyrenaica includes all of the eastern part of Libya between longitudes E16 and E25, including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica borders on Tripolitania in the northwest and on Fezzan in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica officially until 1963 has formed several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya, since 1995.

The 2011 Libyan Civil War started in Cyrenaica, which came largely under the control of the National Transitional Council (headquartered in Benghazi) for most of the war.[3] In 2012, a body known as the Cyrenaica Transitional Council unilaterally declared Cyrenaica to be an autonomous region of Libya.[4][5]