The Deaflympics also known as Deaflympiad (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles). The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event in 1924.
|Comité International des Sports des Sourds|
|Motto||PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)|
|First event||1924 in Paris, France – 1924 Summer Deaflympics|
|Occur every||4 years|
|Last event||2017 in Samsun, Turkey – 2017 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)|
2019 in Province of Sondrio, Italy – 2019 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
|Next event||2021 or 2022 in Caxias do Sul, Brazil – 2021 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)|
2023 in Quebec City, Canada – 2023 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
|Purpose||Provision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports|
The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves. The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability. The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949. The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.
Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).
To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level. Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.
Host nations and cities
To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington, D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russian Federation in 2015.
The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games. The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda. The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses. According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud". In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics". Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended. In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.
The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:
List of Summer Deaflympics hosts
|Games||Year||Host||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top Nation|
|1||1924||Paris, France||Gaston Doumergue||10–17 August||9||148||147||1||6||31||France|
|2||1928||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Wilhelmina of the Netherlands||18–26 August||10||212||198||14||5||38||Great Britain|
|3||1931||Nuremberg, Germany||19–23 August||14||316||288||28||6||43||Germany|
|4||1935||London, Great Britain||17–24 August||12||221||178||43||5||41||Great Britain|
|5||1939||Stockholm, Sweden||24–27 August||13||250||208||42||6||43||Great Britain|
|6||1949||Copenhagen, Denmark||12–16 August||14||391||342||49||7||51||Great Britain|
|7||1953||Brussels, Belgium||15–19 August||16||473||432||41||7||57||Germany|
|8||1957||Milan, Italy||25–30 August||25||635||565||70||9||69||Soviet Union|
|9||1961||Helsinki, Finland||6–10 August||24||613||503||110||10||94||Soviet Union|
|10||1965||Washington, D.C., United States||Lyndon B. Johnson||27 June – 3 July||27||687||575||112||9||85||Soviet Union|
|11||1969||Belgrade, Yugoslavia||9–16 August||33||1,189||964||225||12||105||Soviet Union|
|12||1973||Malmö, Sweden||21–28 August||31||1,116||893||223||11||97||United States|
|13||1977||Bucharest, Romania||Nicolae Ceauşescu||17–27 July||32||1,150||913||237||11||106||United States|
|14||1981||Cologne, West Germany||23 July – 1 August||32||1,198||893||305||11||110||United States|
|15||1985||Los Angeles, United States||Ronald Reagan||10–20 August||29||995||745||250||11||96||United States|
|16||1989||Christchurch, New Zealand||David Cargill||7–17 January||30||955||726||229||12||120||United States|
|17||1993||Sofia, Bulgaria||Zhelyu Zhelev||24 July – 2 August||52||1,679||1,295||384||12||126||United States|
|18||1997||Copenhagen, Denmark||John M. Lovett||13–26 July||65||2,028||1,496||534||14||140||United States|
|19||2001||Rome, Italy||Carlo Azeglio Ciampi||22 July – 1 August||67||2,208||1,562||646||14||143||United States|
|20||2005||Melbourne, Australia||Marigold Southey||5–16 January||63||2,038||1,402||636||14||147||Ukraine|
|21||2009||Taipei, Chinese Taipei 1||Ma Ying-jeou||5–15 September||80||2,670||1,714||779||17||177||Russia|
|22||2013||Sofia, Bulgaria||Rosen Plevneliev||26 July – 4 August||83||2,711||1,792||919||16||203||Russia|
|23||2017||Samsun, Turkey||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan||18–30 July||97||2,856||1,897||959||18||219||Russia|
|24||2022||Caxias do Sul, Brazil|
1 The Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by CISS and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.
List of Winter Deaflympics hosts
|Games||Year||Host||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top Nation|
|1||1949||Seefeld, Austria||26–30 February||5||33||33||0||2||5||Switzerland|
|2||1953||Oslo, Norway||20–24 February||6||44||42||2||4||9||Norway|
|3||1955||Oberammergau, West Germany||10–13 February||8||59||54||5||4||11||Norway|
|4||1959||Montana-Vermala, Switzerland||27–31 January||10||42||3||14||Norway|
|5||1963||Åre, Sweden||12–16 March||9||60||2||13||Austria|
|6||1967||Berchtesgaden, West Germany||20–25 February||12||89||2||11||Norway|
|7||1971||Adelboden, Switzerland||25–30 February||13||145||2||11||Switzerland|
|8||1975||Lake Placid, United States||2–8 February||13||136||4||12||Canada|
|9||1979||Méribel, France||21–27 January||14||180||3||12||Soviet Union|
|10||1983||Madonna di Campiglio, Italy||13–23 January||15||147||3||17||Soviet Union|
|11||1987||Oslo, Norway||7–14 February||15||169||3||18||Norway|
|12||1991||Banff, Canada||2–9 March||16||175||5||18||Soviet Union|
|13||1995||Ylläs, Finland||14–19 March||18||260||4||15||Russia|
|14||1999||Davos, Switzerland||6–14 March||18||273||5||17||Russia|
|15||2003||Sundsvall, Sweden||26 February – 9 March||21||259||4||23||Russia|
|16||2007||Salt Lake City, United States||1–10 February||23||302||5||26||Russia|
|17||2011||Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia||16–28 February||–||–||–||–||–||–||Cancelled|
|18||2015||Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia||28 March – 5 April||27||344||5||31||Russia|
|19||2019||Sondrio Province, Italy||12–21 December||34||461||6||36||Russia|
|20||2023||Quebec City, Canada||TBA|
All-time medal table
An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2017 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics.
An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2019 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics.
The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:
|Current summer sports|
|Aquatics – Swimming||7||10||11||10||11||14||18||14||14||15||17||17||26||26||34||31||34||32||38||38||38||38||40|
|Cycling – Mountain||2||2|
|Cycling – Road||3||3||1||1||1||1||1||3||3||3||3||3||3||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||7||8|
|Volleyball – Beach||2||2||2||2|
|Volleyball – Indoor||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Wrestling – Freestyle||8||8||8||10||10||10||10||10||10||8||8||7||7||7||8|
|Wrestling – Greco-Roman||8||8||8||10||10||10||10||10||10||8||8||7||7||7||8|
|Discontinued summer sports|
|Aquatics – Diving||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Aquatics – Water Polo||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Gymnastics – Artistic||2||2||13||12||12|
|Demonstration summer sports|
|Gymnastics – Artistic||•|
|Gymnastics – Rhythmic||•|
The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:
|Current winter sports|
|Skiing – Alpine||3||4||6||10||8||6||6||6||6||8||8||6||8||8||8||10||10||10||10|
|Skiing – Snowboarding||6||5||10||10||10|
|Skiing – Nordic – Cross-Country||2||3||3||3||5||5||5||6||6||6||6||6||6||8||8||9||8||9||9|
|Discontinued winter sports|
|Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined||1||1|
|Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping||1||1||1|
|Demonstration winter sports|
|Skiing – Snowboarding||•|
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- International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled Archived 25 January 2013 at archive.today. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics Archived 24 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoices.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes Archived 9 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 18 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.