Deaflympics


The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).[2] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event in 1924.

Deaflympics Games
Comité International des Sports des Sourds
Deaflympics Logo
MottoPER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event1924 in Paris, France1924 Summer Deaflympics[1]
Occur every4 years
Last event2017 in Samsun, Turkey2017 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)
2019 in Province of Sondrio, Italy2019 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
Next event2021 or 2022 in Caxias do Sul, Brazil2021 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)
2023 in Quebec City, Canada2023 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
PurposeProvision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Websitewww.deaflympics.com
www.ciss.org

History


The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.[3] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability.[4] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949.[5] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.[2]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).[5]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.[5] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Host nations and cities


To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington, D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russian Federation in 2015.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games.[6][7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda.[8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses.[8] According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud".[9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics".[10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended.[11] In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.[12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:[4][13]

List of Summer Deaflympics hosts


Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1924 Paris, France Gaston Doumergue 10–17 August 91481471631  France
2 1928 Amsterdam, Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands 18–26 August 1021219814538  Great Britain
3 1931 Nuremberg, Germany 19–23 August 1431628828643  Germany
4 1935 London, Great Britain 17–24 August 1222117843541  Great Britain
5 1939 Stockholm, Sweden 24–27 August 1325020842643  Great Britain
6 1949 Copenhagen, Denmark 12–16 August 1439134249751  Great Britain
7 1953 Brussels, Belgium 15–19 August 1647343241757  Germany
8 1957 Milan, Italy 25–30 August 2563556570969  Soviet Union
9 1961 Helsinki, Finland 6–10 August 246135031101094  Soviet Union
10 1965 Washington, D.C., United States Lyndon B. Johnson 27 June – 3 July 27687575112985  Soviet Union
11 1969 Belgrade, Yugoslavia 9–16 August 331,18996422512105  Soviet Union
12 1973 Malmö, Sweden 21–28 August 311,1168932231197  United States
13 1977 Bucharest, Romania Nicolae Ceauşescu 17–27 July 321,15091323711106  United States
14 1981 Cologne, West Germany 23 July – 1 August 321,19889330511110  United States
15 1985 Los Angeles, United States Ronald Reagan 10–20 August 299957452501196  United States
16 1989 Christchurch, New Zealand David Cargill 7–17 January 3095572622912120  United States
17 1993 Sofia, Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev 24 July – 2 August 521,6791,29538412126  United States
18 1997 Copenhagen, Denmark John M. Lovett 13–26 July 652,0281,49653414140  United States
19 2001 Rome, Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 22 July – 1 August 672,2081,56264614143  United States
20 2005 Melbourne, Australia Marigold Southey 5–16 January 632,0381,40263614147  Ukraine
21 2009 Taipei, Chinese Taipei 1 Ma Ying-jeou 5–15 September 802,6701,71477917177  Russia
22 2013 Sofia, Bulgaria Rosen Plevneliev 26 July – 4 August 832,7111,79291916203  Russia
23 2017 Samsun, Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 18–30 July 972,8561,89795918219  Russia
24 2021 or 2022 Caxias do Sul, Brazil
25 2025 Tokyo, Japan TBA

1 The Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by CISS and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.

List of Winter Deaflympics hosts


Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1949 Seefeld, Austria 26–30 February 53333025 Switzerland
2 1953 Oslo, Norway 20–24 February 64442249  Norway
3 1955 Oberammergau, West Germany 10–13 February 859545411  Norway
4 1959 Montana-Vermala, Switzerland 27–31 January 1042314  Norway
5 1963 Åre, Sweden 12–16 March 960213  Austria
6 1967 Berchtesgaden, West Germany 20–25 February 1289211  Norway
7 1971 Adelboden, Switzerland 25–30 February 13145211 Switzerland
8 1975 Lake Placid, United States 2–8 February 13136412  Canada
9 1979 Méribel, France 21–27 January 14180312  Soviet Union
10 1983 Madonna di Campiglio, Italy 13–23 January 15147317  Soviet Union
11 1987 Oslo, Norway 7–14 February 15169318  Norway
12 1991 Banff, Canada 2–9 March 16175518  Soviet Union
13 1995 Ylläs, Finland 14–19 March 18260415  Russia
14 1999 Davos, Switzerland 6–14 March 18273517  Russia
15 2003 Sundsvall, Sweden 26 February – 9 March 21259423  Russia
16 2007 Salt Lake City, United States 1–10 February 23302526  Russia
17 2011 Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia 16–28 February Cancelled
18 2015 Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia 28 March – 5 April 27344531  Russia
19 2019 Sondrio Province, Italy 12–21 December 34461636  Russia
20 2023 Quebec City, Canada TBA
21 2027 -, - TBA


All-time medal table


Summer Deaflympics

An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2017 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics.[14]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States3553103381003
2 Russia240151220611
3 Soviet Union173124108405
4 Germany168207207582
5 Ukraine10184130315
6 Iran896978236
7 Italy8884111283
8 Great Britain688595248
9 Japan676550182
10 France669092248
11 Sweden648060204
12 South Korea625741160
13 Hungary514438133
14 Finland475147145
15 Denmark464053139
16 China463644126
17 Australia39243093
18 Belarus374026103
19 Poland365472162
20 South Africa3518962
21 Turkey343660130
22 Netherlands32352895
23 Norway32282585
24 Canada314037108
25 Chinese Taipei27313492
26 Yugoslavia24132158
27 India1881339
28 Ireland16151142
29 Czech Republic1691035
30 Bulgaria154249106
31 Belgium15294185
32 Kenya14131542
33 Lithuania13172757
34 Venezuela12101537
35 Cuba1251229
36 Estonia1181332
37 Switzerland9161641
38 East Germany78823
39 Romania691429
40 Greece69722
41 New Zealand56718
42 Portugal54413
43 Croatia45312
44 Czechoslovakia37919
45 Latvia35311
46 Slovakia34310
47 Kazakhstan31812
48 Puerto Rico3014
49 Austria26816
50 Thailand2103
51 Malaysia17311
52 Mongolia161320
53 Spain13610
54 Argentina1337
55 Mexico1236
56 Brazil1179
57 Macau1012
 Singapore1012
59 Georgia0213
 Nigeria0213
 Slovenia0213
62 Armenia0156
63 Indonesia0134
64 Serbia0123
65 Moldova0112
66 Ecuador0101
 Iceland0101
68 Kyrgyzstan0055
69 Israel0022
70 Colombia0011
 Cyprus0011
 Egypt0011
 Hong Kong0011
 Saudi Arabia0011
 Turkmenistan0011
 Uzbekistan0011
Totals (76 nations)2269216724166852

Winter Deaflympics

An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2019 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Russia534042135
2 Norway483640124
3 Soviet Union24262171
4 United States21293484
5 Finland21212062
6 Italy21111446
7 Switzerland20292372
8 Czech Republic189633
9 Canada188834
10 Austria17252466
11 Germany13162857
12 France10151035
13 Japan82313
14 Australia64111
15 Ukraine414927
16 China3148
17 Sweden2151027
18 Slovakia25613
19 Slovenia2237
20 Great Britain2226
21 Israel1001
 Kazakhstan1001
23 Poland0112
 Yugoslavia0112
25 Lithuania0101
26 Croatia0044
27 South Korea0011
 Turkey0011
Totals (28 nations)315313316944

Sports


Summer Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 24 28 31 35 39 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 01 05 09 13 17 21
 
Current summer sports
 
Aquatics – Swimming 7 10 11 10 11 14 18 14 14 15 17 17 26 26 34 31 34 32 38 38 38 38 40
 
Athletics 17 20 23 23 23 24 26 32 32 33 34 34 35 30 32 36 40 40 43 42 43 44 43
Badminton 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 6
Basketball DIBF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Bowling 10 10 10 10 8 12
 
Cycling – Mountain 2 2
Cycling – Road 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 8
 
Football 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Golf 2
Handball 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Judo 10 17 17
Karate 5 15 18
Orienteering 6 6 5 8 9
Shooting 1 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 8 7 7 6 6 10 11 12
Table Tennis 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Taekwondo 8 13 13
Tennis 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
 
Volleyball – Beach 2 2 2 2
Volleyball – Indoor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Wrestling – Freestyle 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
Wrestling – Greco-Roman 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Aquatics – Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aquatics – Water Polo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Gymnastics – Artistic 2 2 13 12 12
 
Demonstration summer sports
 
Gymnastics – Artistic
Gymnastics – Rhythmic
 
Total 31 38 43 45 47 51 57 69 94 85 105 97 106 110 96 120 126 140 143 147 177 203 219

Winter Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 49 53 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 99 03 07 15 19 23
 
Current winter sports
 
Chess 4 4
Curling 2 2 2 2
Futsal 2
Ice hockey 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Skiing – Alpine 3 4 6 10 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10
Skiing – Snowboarding 6 5 10 10 10
Skiing – NordicCross-Country 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 8 9 9
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined 1 1
Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping 1 1 1
 
Speed skating 3 4 5
 
Demonstration winter sports
 
Curling
Ice hockey
 
Skiing – Snowboarding
 
Speed skating
 
Total 5 9 11 14 13 11 11 12 12 17 18 18 15 17 23 27 31 36 38

See also


References


  1. "Constitution Archived 25 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine". International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  2. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  3. What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  4. Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  5. Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  6. Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled Archived 25 January 2013 at archive.today. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  7. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  8. ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics Archived 24 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  9. Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoices.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  10. 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes Archived 9 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  11. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 18 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  12. Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  13. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  14. "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.