The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic.

The most important were those of the two Decemvirates, formally the "decemvirate with consular power for writing laws" (Latin: decemviri consulari imperio legibus scribundis) who reformed and codified Roman law during the Conflict of the Orders between ancient Rome's patrician aristocracy and plebeian commoners. Other decemviri include the "decemviri adjudging litigation" (decemviri stlitibus judicandis), the "decemviri making sacrifices" (decemviri sacris faciundis), and the "Decemviri Distributing Public Lands" (decemviri agris dandis adsignandis).

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