Dekulakization (Russian: раскулачивание, raskulachivanie; Ukrainian: розкуркулення, rozkurkulennia) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, or executions of millions of kulaks (prosperous peasants) and their families in the 1929–1932 period of the first five-year plan. To facilitate the expropriations of farmland, the Soviet government portrayed kulaks as class enemies of the USSR.

Part of Collectivization in the Soviet Union
A parade under the banners "We will liquidate the kulaks as a class" and "All to the struggle against the wreckers of agriculture".
LocationSoviet Union
Attack type
mass murder, deportation, starvation
DeathsEstimates from 530,000–600,000[1] to 5,000,000[2]
PerpetratorsSecret police of the Soviet Union

More than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930–1931.[3][4][5] The campaign had the stated purpose of fighting counter-revolution and of building socialism in the countryside. This policy, carried out simultaneously with collectivization in the Soviet Union, effectively brought all agriculture and all the labourers in Soviet Russia under state control.

Hunger, disease, and mass executions during dekulakization led to at least 530,000 to 600,000 deaths from 1929 to 1933,[6] though higher estimates also exist, British historian Robert Conquest estimating in 1986 that 5 million people may have died.[7] The results soon became known outside the Soviet Union.