Democracy Index


The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research division of the Economist Group, a UK-based private company which publishes the weekly newspaper The Economist. The index is self-described as intending to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The 2020 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map

The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises each country into one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

The Economist has published reports with updated versions of the Democracy Index for 2006,[1] 2008,[2] 2010,[3] 2011,[4] 2012,[5] 2013,[6] 2014,[7] 2015,[8] 2016,[9] 2017,[10] 2018,[11] 2019,[12] and 2020.[13]

Methodology


As described in the report,[5] the Democracy Index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted answers. Most answers are experts' assessments. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries, and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category, the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the overall score for a given country. Finally, the score, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined, e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).[3][1]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[14]

Definitions


Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and fundamental political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[8]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honoured but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement and minor suppression of political opposition and critics). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracies. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opposition, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anaemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism is nonexistent or severely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meagre significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair or free (including sham elections), the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and censorship and suppression of governmental criticism are commonplace.[8]

By regime type


The following table indicates the number of nations and the percentage of World population for each type of regime. Some microstates are not considered in the calculation.

Year 2020[13]
Type of regime Colors Score Countries Countries (%) World population (%)
Full democracies 8.01–102313.8%8.4%
Flawed democracies 6.01–85231.1%41.0%
Hybrid regimes 4.01–63521.0%15.0%
Authoritarian regimes 0–45734.1%35.6%

By region


The following table lists the average score for each geographic area.

Rank Region Coun­tries 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
1North America28.648.648.638.598.598.598.598.568.568.568.568.598.58
2Western Europe218.608.618.458.408.448.418.418.428.408.388.358.358.29
3Latin America and the Caribbean246.376.436.376.356.366.386.366.376.336.266.246.136.09
4Asia and Australasia285.445.585.535.515.565.615.705.745.745.635.675.675.62
5Central and Eastern Europe285.765.675.555.505.515.535.585.555.435.405.425.425.36
6Sub-Saharan Africa444.244.284.234.324.334.364.344.384.374.354.364.264.16
7Middle East and North Africa203.543.483.523.623.733.683.653.583.563.543.543.533.44
 World1675.525.555.465.495.525.535.555.555.52 5.48 5.48 5.44 5.37

The following table lists the number of countries in each of the four democracy classifications.

Year 2020
Rank Region Countries Authoritarian Hybrid regime Flawed democracy Full democracy Average score
1 North America200118.58
2 Western Europe21017138.29
3 Latin America and the Caribbean24351336.09
4 Asia and Australasia28761055.62
5 Central and Eastern Europe28781305.36
6 Sub-Saharan Africa442413614.16
7 Middle East and North Africa20162203.44
World167573552235.37

By country


The following table shows each nation's score over the years. The regions are assigned by the Economist Intelligence Unit, and may differ from conventional classifications (for example, Turkey is grouped in Western Europe).

Region 2020 Rank Country Regime type 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
North America 5  Canada Full democracy 9.07 9.07 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.22 9.24
25  United States Flawed democracy 8.22 8.22 8.18 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.05 7.98 7.98 7.96 7.96 7.92
Western Europe 18  Austria Full democracy 8.69 8.49 8.49 8.49 8.62 8.48 8.54 8.54 8.41 8.42 8.29 8.29 8.16
36  Belgium Flawed democracy 8.15 8.16 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.05 7.93 7.93 7.77 7.78 7.78 7.64 7.51
34  Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.60 7.70 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.40 7.53 7.65 7.59 7.59 7.59 7.56
7  Denmark Full democracy 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.38 9.11 9.11 9.20 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.15
6  Finland Full democracy 9.25 9.25 9.19 9.06 9.06 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.14 9.25 9.20
24  France Flawed democracy 8.07 8.07 7.77 7.77 7.88 7.92 8.04 7.92 7.92 7.80 7.80 8.12 7.99
14  Germany Full democracy 8.82 8.82 8.38 8.34 8.34 8.31 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.61 8.68 8.68 8.67
37  Greece Flawed democracy 8.13 8.13 7.92 7.65 7.65 7.65 7.45 7.45 7.23 7.29 7.29 7.43 7.39
2  Iceland Full democracy 9.71 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.58 9.58 9.50 9.58 9.58 9.58 9.37
8  Ireland Full democracy 9.01 9.01 8.79 8.56 8.56 8.68 8.72 8.85 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.24 9.05
29  Italy Flawed democracy 7.73 7.98 7.83 7.74 7.74 7.85 7.85 7.98 7.98 7.98 7.71 7.52 7.74
13  Luxembourg Full democracy 9.10 9.10 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.68
30  Malta Flawed democracy 8.39 8.39 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.39 8.39 8.39 8.15 8.21 7.95 7.68
9  Netherlands Full democracy 9.66 9.53 8.99 8.99 8.99 8.84 8.92 8.92 8.80 8.89 8.89 9.01 8.96
1  Norway Full democracy 9.55 9.68 9.80 9.80 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.87 9.87 9.87 9.81
26  Portugal Flawed democracy 8.16 8.05 8.02 7.81 7.92 7.65 7.79 7.79 7.86 7.84 7.84 8.03 7.90
22  Spain Full democracy 8.34 8.45 8.16 8.02 8.02 8.02 8.05 8.30 8.30 8.08 8.08 8.29 8.12
3  Sweden Full democracy 9.88 9.88 9.50 9.50 9.73 9.73 9.73 9.45 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.26
12   Switzerland Full democracy 9.02 9.15 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.03 9.03 9.03 8.83
104  Turkey Hybrid regime 5.70 5.69 5.73 5.73 5.76 5.63 5.12 5.12 5.04 4.88 4.37 4.09 4.48
16  United Kingdom Full democracy 8.08 8.15 8.16 8.16 8.21 8.31 8.31 8.31 8.36 8.53 8.53 8.52 8.54
Central and Eastern Europe 71  Albania Flawed democracy 5.91 5.91 5.86 5.81 5.67 5.67 5.67 5.91 5.91 5.98 5.98 5.89 6.08
89  Armenia Hybrid regime 4.15 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.02 4.13 4.00 3.88 4.11 4.79 5.54 5.35
146  Azerbaijan Authoritarian 3.31 3.19 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.06 2.83 2.71 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.75 2.68
148  Belarus Authoritarian 3.34 3.34 3.34 3.16 3.04 3.04 3.69 3.62 3.54 3.13 3.13 2.48 2.59
101  Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.78 5.70 5.32 5.24 5.11 5.02 4.78 4.83 4.87 4.87 4.98 4.86 4.84
52  Bulgaria Flawed democracy 7.10 7.02 6.84 6.78 6.72 6.83 6.73 7.14 7.01 7.03 7.03 7.03 6.71
59  Croatia Flawed democracy 7.04 7.04 6.81 6.73 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.75 6.63 6.57 6.57 6.50
31  Czech Republic Flawed democracy 8.17 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.06 7.94 7.94 7.82 7.62 7.69 7.69 7.67
27  Estonia Flawed democracy 7.74 7.68 7.68 7.61 7.61 7.61 7.74 7.85 7.85 7.79 7.97 7.90 7.84
91  Georgia Hybrid regime 4.90 4.62 4.59 4.74 5.53 5.95 5.82 5.88 5.93 5.93 5.50 5.42 5.31
55  Hungary Flawed democracy 7.53 7.44 7.21 7.04 6.96 6.96 6.90 6.84 6.72 6.64 6.63 6.63 6.56
128  Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.62 3.45 3.30 3.24 2.95 3.06 3.17 3.06 3.06 3.06 2.94 2.94 3.14
107  Kyrgyzstan Hybrid regime 4.08 4.05 4.31 4.34 4.69 4.69 5.24 5.33 4.93 5.11 5.11 4.89 4.21
38  Latvia Flawed democracy 7.37 7.23 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.48 7.37 7.31 7.25 7.38 7.49 7.24
42  Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.43 7.36 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.47 7.41 7.50 7.50 7.13
80  Moldova Hybrid regime 6.50 6.50 6.33 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.35 6.01 5.94 5.85 5.75 5.78
81  Montenegro Hybrid regime 6.57 6.43 6.27 6.15 6.05 5.94 5.94 6.01 5.72 5.69 5.74 5.65 5.77
78  North Macedonia Hybrid regime 6.33 6.21 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.25 6.02 5.23 5.57 5.87 5.97 5.89
50  Poland Flawed democracy 7.30 7.30 7.05 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.47 7.09 6.83 6.67 6.67 6.62 6.85
62  Romania Flawed democracy 7.06 7.06 6.60 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.68 6.68 6.62 6.44 6.38 6.49 6.40
124  Russia Authoritarian 5.02 4.48 4.26 3.92 3.74 3.59 3.39 3.31 3.24 3.17 2.94 3.11 3.31
66  Serbia Flawed democracy 6.62 6.49 6.33 6.33 6.33 6.67 6.71 6.71 6.57 6.41 6.41 6.41 6.22
47  Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.40 7.33 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.29 7.29 7.16 7.10 7.17 6.97
35  Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.96 7.96 7.69 7.76 7.88 7.88 7.57 7.57 7.51 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.54
159  Tajikistan Authoritarian 2.45 2.45 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.37 1.95 1.89 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.94
162  Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72
79  Ukraine Hybrid regime 6.94 6.94 6.30 5.94 5.91 5.84 5.42 5.70 5.70 5.69 5.69 5.90 5.81
155  Uzbekistan Authoritarian 1.85 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.72 1.72 2.45 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.01 2.01 2.12
Latin America and the Caribbean 48  Argentina Flawed democracy 6.63 6.63 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 7.02 6.96 6.96 7.02 7.02 6.95
94  Bolivia Hybrid regime 5.98 6.15 5.92 5.84 5.84 5.79 5.79 5.75 5.63 5.49 5.70 4.84 5.08
49  Brazil Flawed democracy 7.38 7.38 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.38 6.96 6.90 6.86 6.97 6.86 6.92
17  Chile Full democracy 7.89 7.89 7.67 7.54 7.54 7.80 7.80 7.84 7.78 7.84 7.97 8.08 8.28
46  Colombia Flawed democracy 6.40 6.54 6.55 6.63 6.63 6.55 6.55 6.62 6.67 6.67 6.96 7.13 7.04
18  Costa Rica Full democracy 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.10 8.10 8.03 8.03 7.96 7.88 7.88 8.07 8.13 8.16
140  Cuba Authoritarian 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.46 3.31 3.00 2.84 2.84
63  Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.13 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.49 6.74 6.67 6.67 6.67 6.66 6.54 6.54 6.32
69  Ecuador Flawed democracy 5.64 5.64 5.77 5.72 5.78 5.87 5.87 5.87 5.81 6.02 6.27 6.33 6.13
77  El Salvador Hybrid regime 6.22 6.40 6.47 6.47 6.47 6.53 6.53 6.64 6.64 6.43 5.96 6.15 5.90
97  Guatemala Hybrid regime 6.07 6.07 6.05 5.88 5.88 5.81 5.81 5.92 5.92 5.86 5.60 5.26 4.97
75  Guyana Flawed democracy 6.15 6.12 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 5.91 6.05 6.25 6.46 6.67 6.15 6.01
106  Haiti Hybrid regime 4.19 4.19 4.00 4.00 3.96 3.94 3.82 3.94 4.02 4.03 4.91 4.57 4.22
88  Honduras Hybrid regime 6.25 6.18 5.76 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.92 5.72 5.63 5.42 5.36
42  Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.34 7.21 7.21 7.13 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.29 7.02 6.96 7.13
72  Mexico Flawed democracy 6.67 6.78 6.93 6.93 6.90 6.91 6.68 6.55 6.47 6.41 6.19 6.09 6.07
120  Nicaragua Authoritarian 5.68 6.07 5.73 5.56 5.56 5.46 5.32 5.26 4.81 4.66 3.63 3.55 3.60
40  Panama Flawed democracy 7.35 7.35 7.15 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.19 7.13 7.08 7.05 7.05 7.18
67  Paraguay Flawed democracy 6.16 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.33 6.27 6.31 6.24 6.24 6.18
57  Peru Flawed democracy 6.11 6.31 6.40 6.59 6.47 6.54 6.54 6.58 6.65 6.49 6.60 6.60 6.53
51  Suriname Flawed democracy 6.52 6.58 6.65 6.65 6.65 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.76 6.98 6.98 6.82
41  Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.18 7.21 7.16 7.16 6.99 6.99 6.99 7.10 7.10 7.04 7.16 7.16 7.16
15  Uruguay Full democracy 7.96 8.08 8.10 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.12 8.38 8.38 8.61
143  Venezuela Authoritarian 5.42 5.34 5.18 5.08 5.15 5.07 5.07 5.00 4.68 3.87 3.16 2.88 2.76
Asia and Australasia 139  Afghanistan Authoritarian 3.06 3.02 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.77 2.77 2.55 2.55 2.97 2.85 2.85
9  Australia Full democracy 9.09 9.09 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.13 9.01 9.01 9.01 9.09 9.09 9.09 8.96
76  Bangladesh Hybrid regime 6.11 5.52 5.87 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.78 5.73 5.73 5.43 5.57 5.88 5.99
84  Bhutan Hybrid regime 2.62 4.30 4.68 4.57 4.65 4.82 4.87 4.93 4.93 5.08 5.30 5.30 5.71
130  Cambodia Authoritarian 4.77 4.87 4.87 4.87 4.96 4.60 4.78 4.27 4.27 3.63 3.59 3.53 3.10
151  China Authoritarian 2.97 3.04 3.14 3.14 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.14 3.18 3.10 3.32 2.26 2.27
83  Fiji Hybrid regime 5.66 5.11 3.62 3.67 3.67 3.61 5.61 5.69 5.64 5.85 5.85 5.85 5.72
87  Hong Kong Hybrid regime 6.03 5.85 5.92 5.92 6.42 6.42 6.46 6.50 6.42 6.31 6.15 6.02 5.57
53  India Flawed democracy 7.68 7.80 7.28 7.30 7.52 7.69 7.92 7.74 7.81 7.23 7.23 6.90 6.61
64  Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.41 6.34 6.53 6.53 6.76 6.82 6.95 7.03 6.97 6.39 6.39 6.48 6.30
21  Japan Full democracy 8.15 8.25 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 7.96 7.99 7.88 7.99 7.99 8.13
161  Laos Authoritarian 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.32 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.14 1.77
39  Malaysia Flawed democracy 5.98 6.36 6.19 6.19 6.41 6.49 6.49 6.43 6.54 6.54 6.88 7.16 7.19
61  Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.60 6.60 6.36 6.23 6.35 6.51 6.62 6.62 6.62 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.48
135  Myanmar Authoritarian 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.77 2.35 2.76 3.05 4.14 4.20 3.83 3.83 3.55 3.04
92    Nepal Hybrid regime 3.42 4.05 4.24 4.24 4.16 4.77 4.77 4.77 4.86 5.18 5.18 5.28 5.22
4  New Zealand Full democracy 9.01 9.19 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.25
167  North Korea Authoritarian 1.03 0.86 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08
105  Pakistan Hybrid regime 3.92 4.46 4.55 4.55 4.57 4.64 4.64 4.40 4.33 4.26 4.17 4.25 4.31
70  Papua New Guinea Flawed democracy 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.32 6.32 6.36 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.10
55  Philippines Flawed democracy 6.48 6.12 6.12 6.12 6.30 6.41 6.77 6.84 6.94 6.71 6.71 6.64 6.56
74  Singapore Flawed democracy 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.88 5.92 6.03 6.14 6.38 6.32 6.38 6.02 6.03
23  South Korea Full democracy 7.88 8.01 8.11 8.06 8.13 8.06 8.06 7.97 7.92 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.01
68  Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.58 6.61 6.64 6.58 5.75 5.69 5.69 6.42 6.48 6.48 6.19 6.27 6.14
11  Taiwan Full democracy 7.82 7.82 7.52 7.46 7.57 7.57 7.65 7.83 7.79 7.73 7.73 7.73 8.94
73  Thailand Flawed democracy 5.67 6.81 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.25 5.39 5.09 4.92 4.63 4.63 6.32 6.04
44  Timor-Leste Flawed democracy 6.41 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.16 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.19 7.19 7.19 7.06
137  Vietnam Authoritarian 2.75 2.53 2.94 2.96 2.89 3.29 3.41 3.53 3.38 3.08 3.08 3.08 2.94
Middle East and North Africa 115  Algeria Authoritarian 3.17 3.32 3.44 3.44 3.83 3.83 3.83 3.95 3.56 3.56 3.50 4.01 3.77
150  Bahrain Authoritarian 3.53 3.38 3.49 2.92 2.53 2.87 2.87 2.79 2.79 2.71 2.71 2.55 2.49
138  Egypt Authoritarian 3.90 3.89 3.07 3.95 4.56 3.27 3.16 3.18 3.31 3.36 3.36 3.06 2.93
152  Iran Authoritarian 2.93 2.83 1.94 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.98 2.16 2.34 2.45 2.45 2.38 2.20
118  Iraq Authoritarian 4.01 4.00 4.00 4.03 4.10 4.10 4.23 4.08 4.08 4.09 4.06 3.74 3.62
27  Israel Flawed democracy 7.28 7.48 7.48 7.53 7.53 7.53 7.63 7.77 7.85 7.79 7.79 7.86 7.84
118  Jordan Authoritarian 3.92 3.93 3.74 3.89 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.86 3.96 3.87 3.93 3.93 3.62
114  Kuwait Authoritarian 3.09 3.39 3.88 3.74 3.78 3.78 3.78 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.93 3.80
108  Lebanon Hybrid regime 5.82 5.62 5.82 5.32 5.05 5.05 5.12 4.86 4.86 4.72 4.63 4.36 4.16
157  Libya Authoritarian 1.84 2.00 1.94 3.55 5.15 4.82 3.80 2.25 2.25 2.32 2.19 2.02 1.95
96  Morocco Hybrid regime 3.90 3.88 3.79 3.83 4.07 4.07 4.00 4.66 4.77 4.87 4.99 5.10 5.04
136  Oman Authoritarian 2.77 2.98 2.86 3.26 3.26 3.26 3.15 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.06 3.00
113  Palestine Authoritarian 6.01 5.83 5.44 4.97 4.80 4.80 4.72 4.57 4.49 4.46 4.39 3.89 3.83
126  Qatar Authoritarian 2.78 2.92 3.09 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.24
156  Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 1.92 1.90 1.84 1.77 1.71 1.82 1.82 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 2.08
149  Sudan Authoritarian 2.90 2.81 2.42 2.38 2.38 2.54 2.54 2.37 2.37 2.15 2.15 2.70 2.54
164  Syria Authoritarian 2.36 2.18 2.31 1.99 1.63 1.86 1.74 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43
54  Tunisia Flawed democracy 3.06 2.96 2.79 5.53 5.67 5.76 6.31 6.72 6.40 6.32 6.41 6.72 6.59
145  United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.42 2.60 2.52 2.58 2.58 2.52 2.64 2.75 2.75 2.69 2.76 2.76 2.70
157  Yemen Authoritarian 2.98 2.95 2.64 2.57 3.12 2.79 2.79 2.24 2.07 2.07 1.95 1.95 1.95
Sub-Saharan Africa 117  Angola Authoritarian 2.41 3.35 3.32 3.32 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.40 3.62 3.62 3.72 3.66
102  Benin Hybrid regime 6.16 6.06 6.17 6.06 6.00 5.87 5.65 5.72 5.67 5.61 5.74 5.09 4.58
33  Botswana Flawed democracy 7.60 7.47 7.63 7.63 7.85 7.98 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.62
116  Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.72 3.60 3.59 3.59 3.52 4.15 4.09 4.70 4.70 4.75 4.75 4.04 3.73
154  Burundi Authoritarian 4.51 4.51 4.01 4.01 3.60 3.41 3.33 2.49 2.40 2.33 2.33 2.15 2.14
32  Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.43 7.81 7.94 7.92 7.92 7.92 7.81 7.81 7.94 7.88 7.88 7.78 7.65
142  Cameroon Authoritarian 3.27 3.46 3.41 3.41 3.44 3.41 3.41 3.66 3.46 3.61 3.28 2.85 2.77
165  Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.61 1.86 1.82 1.82 1.99 1.49 1.49 1.57 1.61 1.52 1.52 1.32 1.32
163  Chad Authoritarian 1.65 1.52 1.52 1.62 1.62 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.61 1.61 1.55
132  Comoros Authoritarian 3.90 3.58 3.41 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.15 3.09
129  Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 3.19 2.94 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.91 2.91 3.25 3.31 3.11 3.11
109  Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 3.38 3.27 3.02 3.08 3.25 3.25 3.53 3.31 3.81 3.93 4.15 4.05 4.11
166  Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.76 2.28 2.15 2.15 1.92 1.83 1.75 2.11 1.93 1.61 1.49 1.13 1.13
144  Djibouti Authoritarian 2.37 2.37 2.20 2.68 2.74 2.96 2.99 2.90 2.83 2.76 2.87 2.77 2.71
160  Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 2.09 2.19 1.84 1.77 1.83 1.77 1.66 1.77 1.70 1.81 1.92 1.92 1.92
153  Eritrea Authoritarian 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.34 2.40 2.40 2.44 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.15
133  Eswatini Authoritarian 2.93 3.04 2.90 3.26 3.20 3.20 3.09 3.09 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.14 3.08
123  Ethiopia Authoritarian 4.72 4.52 3.68 3.79 3.72 3.83 3.72 3.83 3.60 3.42 3.35 3.44 3.38
121  Gabon Authoritarian 2.72 3.00 3.29 3.48 3.56 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.74 3.61 3.61 3.61 3.54
103  Gambia Hybrid regime 4.39 4.19 3.38 3.38 3.31 3.31 3.05 2.97 2.91 4.06 4.31 4.33 4.49
59  Ghana Flawed democracy 5.35 5.35 6.02 6.02 6.02 6.33 6.33 6.86 6.75 6.69 6.63 6.63 6.50
133  Guinea Authoritarian 2.02 2.09 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.84 3.01 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.08
147  Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.00 1.99 1.99 1.99 1.43 1.26 1.93 1.93 1.98 1.98 1.98 2.63 2.63
95  Kenya Hybrid regime 5.08 4.79 4.71 4.71 4.71 5.13 5.13 5.33 5.33 5.11 5.11 5.18 5.05
64  Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.48 6.29 6.02 6.33 6.66 6.66 6.66 6.59 6.59 6.64 6.64 6.54 6.30
90  Liberia Hybrid regime 5.22 5.25 5.07 5.07 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 5.31 5.23 5.35 5.45 5.32
85  Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.82 5.57 3.94 3.93 3.93 4.32 4.42 4.85 5.07 5.11 5.22 5.64 5.70
82  Malawi Hybrid regime 4.97 5.13 5.84 5.84 6.08 6.00 5.66 5.55 5.55 5.49 5.49 5.50 5.74
111  Mali Authoritarian 5.99 5.87 6.01 6.36 5.12 5.90 5.79 5.70 5.70 5.64 5.41 4.92 3.93
112  Mauritania Authoritarian 3.12 3.91 3.86 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 3.96 3.96 3.82 3.82 3.92 3.92
20  Mauritius Full democracy 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.27 8.28 8.22 8.22 8.22 8.14
122  Mozambique Authoritarian 5.28 5.49 4.90 4.90 4.88 4.77 4.66 4.60 4.02 4.02 3.85 3.65 3.51
58  Namibia Flawed democracy 6.54 6.48 6.23 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.31 6.31 6.31 6.25 6.43 6.52
125  Niger Authoritarian 3.54 3.41 3.38 4.16 4.16 4.08 4.02 4.62 3.96 3.76 3.76 3.29 3.29
110  Nigeria Hybrid regime 3.52 3.53 3.47 3.83 3.77 3.77 3.76 3.85 4.50 4.44 4.44 4.12 4.10
130  Rwanda Authoritarian 3.82 3.71 3.25 3.25 3.36 3.38 3.25 3.07 3.07 3.19 3.35 3.16 3.10
86  Senegal Hybrid regime 5.37 5.37 5.27 5.51 6.09 6.15 6.15 6.08 6.21 6.15 6.15 5.81 5.67
99  Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 3.57 4.11 4.51 4.51 4.71 4.64 4.56 4.55 4.55 4.66 4.66 4.86 4.86
45  South Africa Flawed democracy 7.91 7.91 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.90 7.82 7.56 7.41 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.05
93  Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.18 5.28 5.64 5.64 5.88 5.77 5.77 5.58 5.76 5.47 5.41 5.16 5.10
141  Togo Authoritarian 1.75 2.43 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.41 3.32 3.05 3.10 3.30 2.80
98  Uganda Hybrid regime 5.14 5.03 5.05 5.13 5.16 5.22 5.22 5.22 5.26 5.09 5.20 5.02 4.94
99  Zambia Hybrid regime 5.25 5.25 5.68 6.19 6.26 6.26 6.39 6.28 5.99 5.68 5.61 5.09 4.86
127  Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.62 2.53 2.64 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.78 3.05 3.05 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.16

Score changes


The following table shows the original 2006 score and the changes in each new report. Changes of regime type are marked with background color.

Country 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
 
North America
 Canada 9.07 0.01 0.07 0.07 0.02
 United States 8.22 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.04
Western Europe
 Austria 8.69 0.20 0.13 0.14 0.06 0.13 0.01 0.13 0.13
 Belgium 8.15 0.01 0.11 0.12 0.16 0.01 0.14 0.13
 Cyprus 7.60 0.10 0.41 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.06 0.03
 Denmark 9.52 0.14 0.27 0.09 0.02 0.07
 Finland 9.25 0.06 0.13 0.03 0.11 0.11 0.05
 France 8.07 0.30 0.11 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.32 0.13
 Germany 8.82 0.44 0.04 0.03 0.33 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.01
 Greece 8.13 0.21 0.27 0.20 0.22 0.06 0.14 0.04
 Iceland 9.71 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.21
 Ireland 9.01 0.22 0.23 0.12 0.04 0.13 0.30 0.09 0.19
 Italy 7.73 0.25 0.15 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.27 0.19 0.22
 Luxembourg 9.10 0.22 0.07 0.13
 Malta 8.39 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.06 0.26 0.27
 Netherlands 9.66 0.13 0.54 0.15 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.12 0.05
 Norway 9.55 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.06 0.06
 Portugal 8.16 0.11 0.03 0.21 0.11 0.27 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.19 0.13
 Spain 8.34 0.11 0.29 0.14 0.03 0.25 0.22 0.21 0.17
 Sweden 9.88 0.38 0.23 0.28 0.06 0.13
  Switzerland 9.02 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.20
 Turkey 5.70 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.13 0.51 0.08 0.16 0.51 0.28 0.39
 United Kingdom 8.08 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.17 0.01 0.02
Central and Eastern Europe
 Albania 5.91 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.24 0.07 0.09 0.19
 Armenia 4.15 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.23 0.68 0.75 0.19
 Azerbaijan 3.31 0.12 0.04 0.09 0.23 0.12 0.06 0.10 0.07
 Belarus 3.34 0.18 0.12 0.65 0.07 0.08 0.41 0.65 0.11
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.78 0.08 0.38 0.08 0.13 0.09 0.24 0.05 0.04 0.11 0.12 0.02
 Bulgaria 7.10 0.08 0.18 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.10 0.41 0.13 0.02 0.32
 Croatia 7.04 0.23 0.08 0.20 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.07
 Czech Republic 8.17 0.02 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.07 0.02
 Estonia 7.74 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.18 0.07 0.06
 Georgia 4.90 0.28 0.03 0.15 0.79 0.42 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.43 0.08 0.11
 Hungary 7.53 0.09 0.23 0.17 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.07
 Kazakhstan 3.62 0.17 0.15 0.06 0.29 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.20
 Kyrgyzstan 4.08 0.03 0.26 0.03 0.35 0.55 0.09 0.40 0.18 0.22 0.67
 Latvia 7.37 0.14 0.18 0.43 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.11 0.25
 Lithuania 7.43 0.07 0.12 0.30 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.37
 Moldova 6.50 0.17 0.01 0.03 0.34 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.03
 Montenegro 6.57 0.14 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.29 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.12
 North Macedonia 6.33 0.12 0.05 0.09 0.23 0.79 0.34 0.30 0.10 0.08
 Poland 7.30 0.25 0.07 0.35 0.38 0.26 0.16 0.05 0.23
 Romania 7.06 0.46 0.06 0.14 0.06 0.18 0.06 0.11 0.09
 Russia 5.02 0.54 0.22 0.34 0.18 0.15 0.20 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.23 0.17 0.20
 Serbia 6.62 0.13 0.16 0.34 0.04 0.14 0.16 0.19
 Slovakia 7.40 0.07 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.06 0.07 0.20
 Slovenia 7.96 0.27 0.07 0.12 0.31 0.06 0.01 0.04
 Tajikistan 2.45 0.06 0.14 0.42 0.06 0.04 0.01
 Turkmenistan 1.83 0.11 0.11 0.11
 Ukraine 6.94 0.64 0.36 0.03 0.07 0.42 0.28 0.01 0.21 0.09
 Uzbekistan 1.85 0.11 0.02 0.73 0.50 0.06 0.11
Latin America and the Caribbean
 Argentina 6.63 0.21 0.18 0.06 0.06 0.07
 Bolivia 5.98 0.17 0.23 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.14 0.21 0.86 0.24
 Brazil 7.38 0.26 0.26 0.42 0.06 0.04 0.11 0.11 0.04
 Chile 7.89 0.22 0.13 0.26 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.11 0.20
 Colombia 6.40 0.14 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.29 0.17 0.09
 Costa Rica 8.04 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.19 0.06 0.03
 Cuba 3.52 0.06 0.15 0.31 0.16
 Dominican Republic 6.13 0.07 0.29 0.25 0.07 0.01 0.12 0.22
 Ecuador 5.64 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.21 0.25 0.06 0.20
 El Salvador 6.22 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.21 0.47 0.19 0.25
 Guatemala 6.07 0.02 0.17 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.26 0.34 0.29
 Guyana 6.15 0.03 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.52 0.14
 Haiti 4.19 0.19 0.04 0.02 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.88 0.34 0.35
 Honduras 6.25 0.07 0.42 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.09 0.21 0.06
 Jamaica 7.34 0.13 0.08 0.26 0.10 0.27 0.06 0.17
 Mexico 6.67 0.11 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.23 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.22 0.10 0.02
 Nicaragua 5.68 0.39 0.34 0.17 0.10 0.14 0.06 0.45 0.15 1.03 0.08 0.05
 Panama 7.35 0.20 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.13
 Paraguay 6.16 0.24 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.06
 Peru 6.11 0.20 0.09 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.16 0.11 0.07
 Suriname 6.52 0.06 0.07 0.12 0.01 0.22 0.16
 Trinidad and Tobago 7.18 0.03 0.05 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.12
 Uruguay 7.96 0.12 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.26 0.23
 Venezuela 5.42 0.08 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.32 0.81 0.71 0.28 0.04
Asia and Australasia
 Afghanistan 3.06 0.04 0.54 0.29 0.22 0.42 0.12
 Australia 9.09 0.13 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.13
 Bangladesh 6.11 0.59 0.35 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.30 0.14 0.31 0.11
 Bhutan 2.62 1.68 0.38 0.11 0.08 0.17 0.05 0.06 0.15 0.22 0.41
 Cambodia 4.77 0.10 0.09 0.36 0.18 0.51 0.64 0.04 0.06 0.43
 China 2.97 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.14 0.04 0.08 0.22 1.06 0.01
 Fiji 5.66 0.55 1.49 0.05 0.06 2.00 0.08 0.05 0.21 0.13
 Hong Kong 6.03 0.18 0.07 0.50 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.13 0.45
 India 7.68 0.12 0.52 0.02 0.22 0.17 0.23 0.18 0.07 0.58 0.33 0.29
 Indonesia 6.41 0.07 0.19 0.23 0.06 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.58 0.09 0.18
 Japan 8.15 0.10 0.17 0.12 0.03 0.11 0.11 0.14
 Laos 2.10 0.22 0.11 0.16 0.23 0.37
 Malaysia 5.98 0.38 0.17 0.22 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.34 0.28 0.03
 Mongolia 6.60 0.24 0.13 0.12 0.16 0.11 0.12 0.02
 Myanmar 1.77 0.58 0.41 0.29 1.09 0.06 0.37 0.28 0.51
   Nepal 3.42 0.63 0.19 0.08 0.61 0.09 0.32 0.10 0.06
 New Zealand 9.01 0.18 0.07 0.01
 North Korea 1.03 0.17 0.22
 Pakistan 3.92 0.54 0.09 0.02 0.07 0.24 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.06
 Papua New Guinea 6.54 0.22 0.04 0.33 0.07
 Philippines 6.48 0.36 0.18 0.11 0.36 0.07 0.10 0.23 0.07 0.08
 Singapore 5.89 0.01 0.04 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.06 0.06 0.36 0.01
 South Korea 7.88 0.13 0.10 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.01
 Sri Lanka 6.58 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.83 0.06 0.73 0.06 0.29 0.08 0.13
 Taiwan 7.82 0.30 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.18 0.04 0.06 1.21
 Thailand 5.67 1.14 0.26 0.30 0.86 0.30 0.17 0.29 1.69 0.28
 Timor-Leste 6.41 0.81 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.13
 Vietnam 2.75 0.22 0.41 0.02 0.07 0.40 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.30 0.14
Middle East and North Africa
 Algeria 3.17 0.15 0.12 0.39 0.12 0.39 0.06 0.51 0.24
 Bahrain 3.53 0.15 0.11 0.57 0.39 0.34 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.06
 Egypt 3.90 0.01 0.82 0.88 0.61 1.29 0.11 0.02 0.13 0.05 0.30 0.13
 Iran 2.93 0.10 0.89 0.04 0.18 0.18 0.11 0.07 0.18
 Iraq 4.01 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.13 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.32 0.12
 Israel 7.28 0.20 0.05 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.02
 Jordan 3.92 0.01 0.19 0.15 0.13 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.06 0.31
 Kuwait 3.09 0.30 0.49 0.14 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.13
 Lebanon 5.82 0.20 0.20 0.50 0.27 0.07 0.26 0.14 0.09 0.27 0.20
 Libya 1.84 0.16 0.06 1.61 1.60 0.33 1.02 1.55 0.07 0.13 0.17 0.07
 Morocco 3.90 0.02 0.09 0.04 0.24 0.07 0.66 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.06
 Oman 2.77 0.21 0.12 0.40 0.11 0.11 0.02 0.06
 Palestine 6.01 0.18 0.39 0.47 0.17 0.08 0.15 0.08 0.03 0.07 0.50 0.06
 Qatar 2.78 0.14 0.17 0.09 0.01 0.05
 Saudi Arabia 1.92 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.15
 Sudan 2.90 0.09 0.39 0.04 0.16 0.17 0.22 0.55 0.16
 Syria 2.36 0.18 0.13 0.32 0.36 0.23 0.12 0.31
 Tunisia 3.06 0.10 0.17 2.74 0.14 0.09 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.08 0.09 0.31 0.13
 United Arab Emirates 2.42 0.18 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.16
 Yemen 2.98 0.03 0.31 0.07 0.55 0.33 0.55 0.17 0.12
Sub-Saharan Africa
 Angola 2.41 0.94 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.22 0.10 0.06
 Benin 6.16 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.06 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.65 0.51
 Botswana 7.60 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.19
 Burkina Faso 3.72 0.12 0.01 0.07 0.63 0.06 0.61 0.05 0.71 0.31
 Burundi 4.51 0.50 0.41 0.19 0.08 0.84 0.09 0.07 0.18 0.01
 Cape Verde 7.43 0.38 0.13 0.02 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.13
 Cameroon 3.27 0.19 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.33 0.43 0.08
 Central African Republic 1.61 0.25 0.04 0.17 0.50 0.08 0.04 0.09 0.20
 Chad 1.65 0.13 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.06
 Comoros 3.90 0.32 0.17 0.11 0.19 0.56 0.06
 Republic of the Congo 3.19 0.25 0.05 0.02 0.34 0.06 0.20
 Ivory Coast 3.38 0.11 0.25 0.06 0.17 0.28 0.22 0.50 0.12 0.22 0.10 0.06
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2.76 0.48 0.13 0.23 0.09 0.08 0.36 0.18 <