Demography of London


The demography of London is analysed by the Office for National Statistics and data is produced for each of the Greater London wards, the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, the Inner London and Outer London statistical sub-regions, each of the Parliamentary constituencies in London, and for all of Greater London as a whole. Additionally, data is produced for the Greater London Urban Area. Statistical information is produced about the size and geographical breakdown of the population, the number of people entering and leaving country and the number of people in each demographic subgroup.

Population density in the 2011 census in Greater London.
Inner London and Outer London as defined by the Office for National Statistics

Population change


The historical population for the current area of Greater London, divided into the statistical areas of Inner and Outer London is as follows:[1][2][3]

Year1801181118211831184118511861187118811891
Inner London 879,491 1,040,033 1,263,975 1,515,557 1,661,346 1,995,846 2,634,143 3,272,441 3,910,735 4,422,340
Outer London 131,666 157,640 186,147 214,392 255,667 290,763 460,248 629,737 799,225 1,143,516
Greater London1,011,157 1,197,673 1,450,122 1,729,949 1,917,013 2,286,609 3,094,391 3,902,178 4,709,960 5,565,856
Year1901191119211931194119511961197119811991
Inner London 4,670,177 4,997,741 4,936,803 4,887,932 4,224,135 3,680,821 3,336,557 3,030,490 2,425,534 2,625,245
Outer London 1,556,317 2,160,134 2,616,723 3,211,010 3,763,801 4,483,595 4,444,785 4,418,694 4,182,979 4,262,035
Greater London 6,226,494 7,157,875 7,553,526 8,098,942 7,987,936 8,164,416 7,781,342 7,449,184 6,608,513 6,887,280
Year20012011[4]
Inner London 2,765,975 3,231,900
Outer London 4,406,061 4,942,100
Greater London 7,172,036 8,173,900
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18011,011,157    
18111,197,673+1.71%
18211,450,122+1.93%
18311,729,949+1.78%
18411,917,013+1.03%
18512,286,609+1.78%
18613,094,391+3.07%
18713,902,178+2.35%
18814,709,960+1.90%
18915,565,856+1.68%
19016,226,494+1.13%
19117,157,875+1.40%
19217,553,526+0.54%
19318,098,942+0.70%
19417,987,936−0.14%
19518,164,416+0.22%
19617,781,342−0.48%
19717,449,184−0.44%
19816,608,513−1.19%
19916,887,280+0.41%
20017,172,036+0.41%
20118,173,941+1.32%
2018[5]8,908,081+1.24%

Race by borough


This table shows the proportion of different races by London borough, as found in the 2011 census.

Local authorityWhiteMixedAsianBlackOther
Barnet64.14.818.57.74.8
Barking and Dagenham58.34.215.9201.6
Bexley81.92.36.68.50.8
Brent36.35.134.118.85.8
Bromley84.33.55.260.9
Camden66.35.616.18.23.8
City of London78.63.912.72.62.1
Croydon55.16.616.420.21.8
Ealing494.529.710.96
Enfield615.511.217.25.1
Greenwich62.54.811.719.11.9
Hackney54.76.410.523.15.3
Haringey60.56.59.518.84.7
Harrow42.2442.68.22.9
Havering87.72.14.94.80.6
Hammersmith and Fulham68.15.59.111.85.5
Hillingdon60.63.825.37.33
Hounslow51.44.134.46.63.6
Islington68.26.59.212.83.4
Kensington and Chelsea70.65.7106.57.2
Kingston upon Thames74.53.916.32.52.7
Lambeth57.17.66.925.92.4
Lewisham53.57.49.327.22.6
Merton64.94.718.110.41.9
Newham294.543.519.63.5
Redbridge42.54.141.88.92.7
Richmond upon Thames863.67.31.51.6
Southwark54.36.29.426.93.3
Sutton78.63.811.64.81.3
Tower Hamlets45.24.141.17.32.3
Waltham Forest52.25.321.117.34.1
Wandsworth71.4510.910.72.1
Westminster61.75.214.57.511.1
Illustrated London Boroughs maps showing the percentage of races in each borough, according to the 2011 census
White
Asian
Black

Ethnicity


The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 census in Greater London.

Ethnic Group 1991[6] 2001[7] 2011[8] Change 2001–2011
Number % Number % Number % %
White: British[Note 1]4,287,86159.79%3,669,28444.89%
14.43%
White: Irish256,4703.83%220,4883.07%175,9742.15%
20.19%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller[Note 2]8,1960.10%
n/a
White: Other[Note 3]594,8548.29%1,033,98112.65%
73.82%
White: Total5,333,58079.80%5,103,20371.15%4,887,43559.79%
4.23%
Asian or Asian British: Indian347,0915.19%436,9936.09%542,8576.64%
24.24%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani87,8161.31%142,7491.99%223,7972.74%
56.78%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi85,7381.28%153,8932.15%222,1272.72%
44.34%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese[Note 4]56,5790.84%80,2011.12%124,2501.52%
54.92%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian112,8071.68%133,0581.86%398,5154.88%
199.51%
Asian or Asian British: Total690,03110.33%946,89413.20%1,511,54618.49%
59.63%
Black or Black British: African163,6352.44%378,9335.28%573,9317.02%
51.46%
Black or Black British: Caribbean290,9684.35%343,5674.79%344,5974.22%
0.3%
Black or Black British: Other Black80,6131.20%60,3490.84%170,1122.08%
181.88%
Black or Black British: Total535,2168.01%782,84910.92%1,088,64013.32%
39.06%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean70,9280.99%119,4251.46%
68.38%
Mixed: White and Black African34,1820.48%65,4790.80%
91.56%
Mixed: White and Asian59,9440.84%101,5001.24%
69.33%
Mixed: Other Mixed61,0570.85%118,8751.45%
94.70%
Mixed: Total[Note 5]226,1113.15%405,2794.96%
79.24%
Other: Arab[Note 6]106,0201.30%
n/a
Other: Any other ethnic group113,0341.58%175,0212.14%
54.84%
Other: Total120,8721.81%113,0341.58%281,0413.44%
148.63%
Total6,679,699100.00%7,172,091100.00%8,173,941100.00%
13.97%
  1. New category created for the 2001 census
  2. New category created for the 2011 census
  3. New category created for the 2001 census
  4. In 2001, listed under the 'Other ethnic group' heading.
  5. New category created for the 2001 census
  6. New category created for the 2011 census

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000 in London.[9]

Country of birth


2011 United Kingdom Census[10]
Country of birthPopulation
United Kingdom5,175,677
India262,247
Poland158,300
Ireland129,807
Nigeria114,718
Pakistan112,457
Bangladesh109,948
Jamaica87,467
Sri Lanka84,542
France66,654
Somalia65,333
Kenya64,212
United States63,920
Ghana62,896
Italy62,050
Turkey59,596
South Africa57,765
Germany55,476
Australia53,959
Romania44,848
Philippines44,199
Cyprus43,428
Portugal41,041
Lithuania39,817
China39,452
Afghanistan37,680
Iran37,339
Spain35,880
Uganda32,136
Brazil 31,357

The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population are foreign-born (including 24.5% born in a non-European country) making London the city with the second largest immigrant population in absolute terms, after New York City.[11][12] The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[13]

Languages


According to the 2011 Census, 6,083,420 or 77.9% of London's population aged 3 and over spoke English as a main language, with a further 1,406,912 (19.8%) speaking it as a second language or well to very well.[14] 271,693 (3.5%) could not speak English well, while 47,917 (0.6%) could not speak English at all.[14] 2,456 (<0.1%) spoke other UK minority languages, with the most common being Welsh and 2,926 (<0.1%) used British Sign Language.[15] This shows also great challenges for TfL and other government services, for example most ticket vending machines use only English, French and up to 2 other western Europe hemisphere languages, while as shown below most demand is for Indian languages, Polish etc.

The most common main languages spoken in Greater London according to the 2011 census are shown below.[16]

RankLanguageUsual residents aged 3+Proportion
1English6,083,42077.90%
2Polish147,8161.90%
3Bengali (incl. Sylheti and Chatgaya)114,2671.50%
4Gujarati101,6761.30%
5French84,1911.10%
6Urdu78,6671.00%
7Portuguese71,5250.90%
8Turkish71,2420.90%
9Spanish71,1920.90%
10Arabic70,6020.90%
11Tamil70,5650.90%
12Punjabi68,5250.90%
13Somali54,8520.70%
14Italian49,4840.60%
15Romanian39,6530.50%
16Persian39,6450.50%
17Lithuanian35,3410.50%
18German31,3060.40%
19Greek26,9240.30%
20Russian26,6030.30%
Other441,9685.66%

Religion


The following table shows the religion of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 censuses in Greater London.

Religion 2001[17] 2011[18]
Number % Number %
Christian4,176,17558.23%3,957,98448.42%
No religion1,130,61615.76%1,694,37220.73%
Muslim607,0838.46%1,012,82312.39%
Religion not stated621,3668.66%692,7398.47%
Hindu291,9774.07%411,2915.03%
Jewish149,7892.09%148,6021.82%
Sikh104,2301.45%126,1341.54%
Buddhist54,2970.76%82,0261.00%
Other religion36,5580.51%47,9700.59%
Total7,172,091100.00%8,173,941100.00%

Eurostat NUTS


In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), London is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKI", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code
London UKI Inner London UKI1 West Inner London (City of London, Camden, Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Wandsworth, Westminster) UKI11
East Inner London (Hackney, Haringey, Islington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets) UKI12
Outer London UKI2 East and North East Outer London (Barking and Dagenham, Bexley, Enfield, Greenwich, Havering, Redbridge, Waltham Forest) UKI21
South Outer London (Bromley, Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton, Sutton) UKI22
West and North West Outer London (Barnet, Brent, Ealing, Harrow, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames) UKI23

Urban and metropolitan area


At the 2001 census, the population of the Greater London Urban Area was 8,278,251.[19] This area does not include some outliers within Greater London, but does extend into the adjacent South East England and East of England regions. In 2004 the London Plan of the Mayor of London defined a metropolitan region with a population of 18 million.[20] Eurostat has developed a harmonising standard for comparing metropolitan areas in the European Union and the population of the London Larger Urban Zone is 11,917,000; it occupies an area of 8,920 square kilometres (3,440 sq mi). Another definition gives the population of the metropolitan area as 13,709,000.[21]

See also


References


  1. "London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  2. "Outer London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  3. "Inner London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  4. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
  6. "1991 census – theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  7. "2001 census – theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  8. "Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  9. Benedictus, Leo (25 January 2005). "Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  10. "Table QS213EW 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  11. "london.gov.uk - 2011 Census Migrant Population". london.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  12. "State of our Immigrant City (Annual Report 2018)" (PDF). nyc.gov. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  13. Kyambi, Sarah (7 September 2005). Beyond Black and White: Mapping New Immigrant Communities. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 1-86030-284-X.
  14. "Proficiency in English, 2011 (QS205EW)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  15. "Main Language (detailed), 2011 (QS204EW)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  16. "Download:local authorities: county / unitary". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  17. "2001 census – theme tables". Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  18. "Religion by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  19. "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005.
  20. Mayor of London. "The London Plan". Greater London Authority.
  21. "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Archived from the original (pdf) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2010.